2010
2
2
2
98
A Comparative Study of LeastSquares and the WeakForm Galerkin Finite Element Models for the Nonlinear Analysis of Timoshenko Beams
2
2
In this paper, a comparison of weakform Galerkin and leastsquares finite element models of Timoshenko beam theory with the von Kármán strains is presented. Computational characteristics of the two models and the influence of the polynomial orders used on the relative accuracies of the two models are discussed. The degree of approximation functions used varied from linear to the 5th order. In the linear analysis, numerical results of beam bending under different types of boundary conditions are presented along with exact solutions to investigate the degree of shear locking in the newly developed mixed finite element models. In the nonlinear analysis, convergences of nonlinear finite element solutions of newly developed mixed finite element models are presented along with those of existing traditional model to compare the performance.
1

101
114


W
Kim
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Army Academy at Yeong cheon, Yeong cheon, 770849 South Korea
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea
Iran


J.N
Reddy
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas
Iran
jnreddy@shakti.tamu.edu
Finite element models
Leastsquares model
Weakform Galerkin model
Geometric nonlinearity
Timoshenko Beam Theory
[[1] Reddy J.N., 2006, An Introduction to the Finite Element Method, Third Edition, McGrawHill, New York.##[2] Reddy J.N., 2002, Energy Principles and Variational Methods in Applied Mechanics, Second Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.##[3] Reddy J.N., 2004, An Introduction to Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.##[4] Wang C.M., Reddy J.N., Lee K.H., 2000, Shear Deformable Beams and Plates: Relationships with Classical Solutions, Elsevier, New York.##[5] Pontaza J.P., Reddy J.N., 2004, Mixed plate bending elements based on leastsquares formulation, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 60: 891922.##[6] Pontaza J.P., 2005, Leastsquares variational principles and the finite element method: Theory, formulations, and models for solids and fluid mechanics, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 41: 703728.##[7] Bochev P.B., Gunzburger M.D., 2009, Leastsquares Finite Element Methods, Springer, New York.##[8] Jiang B.N., 1998, The leastsquares Finite Element Method, Springer, New York.##[9] Jou J., Yang S.Y., 2000, Leastsquares finite element approximations to the Timoshenko beam problem, Applied Mathematics and Computation 115: 6375.##[10] Reddy, J.N., 1997, On lockingfree shear deformable beam finite elements, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 149: 113132.## ##]
Creep Stress Redistribution Analysis of ThickWalled FGM Spheres
2
2
Timedependent creep stress redistribution analysis of thickwalled FGM spheres subjected to an internal pressure and a uniform temperature field is investigated. The material creep and mechanical properties through the radial graded direction are assumed to obey the simple powerlaw variation throughout the thickness. Total strains are assumed to be the sum of elastic, thermal and creep strains. Creep strains are time temperature and stress dependent. Using equations of equilibrium, compatibility and stressstrain relations a differential equation, containing creep strains, for radial stress is obtained. Ignoring creep strains in this differential equation, a closed form solution for initial thermoelastic stresses at zero time is presented. Initial thermoelastic stresses are illustrated for different material properties. Using PrandtlReuss relation in conjunction with the above differential equation and the Norton’s law for the material uniaxial creep constitutive model, radial and tangential creep stress rates are obtained. These creep stress rates are containing integrals of effective stress and are evaluated numerically. Creep stress rates are plotted against dimensionless radius for different material properties. Using creep stress rates, stress redistributions are calculated iteratively using thermoelastic stresses as initial values for stress redistributions. It has been found that radial stress redistributions are not significant for different material properties. However, major redistributions occur for tangential and effective stresses.
1

115
128


S.M.A
Aleayoub
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak
Iran


A
Loghman
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
aloghman@kashanu.ac.ir
FGM Spheres
Thermoelastic Creep
Stress Redistribution
[[1] loghman A., shokouhi N., 2009, Creep damage evaluation of thickwalled spheres using a longterm creep constitutive model, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 23: 25772582.##[2] Evans R.W., Parker J.D., Wilsher B., 1992, The theta projection concept a model based approach to design and life extention of engineering plant, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 50: 60147.##[3] Loghman A., Wahab M.A., 1996, Creep damage simulation of thickwalled tubes using the theta projection concept, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 67: 105111.##[4] Sim R.G., Penny R.K., 1971, Plane strain creep behaviour of thickwalled cylinders, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 13: 9871009.##[5] Yang Y.Y., 2000, Timedependent stress analysis in functionally graded material, International Journal of Solids and Structures 37:75937608.##[6] You L.H., Ou H., Zheng Z.Y., 2007, Creep deformation and stresses in thickwalled cylindrical vessels of FGM subjected to internal pressure, Composite Structures 78: 285291.##[7] Xuan F.Zh., Chen J.J., Wang Zh., Tu Sh.T., 2009, Timedependent deformation and fracture of multimaterial systems at high temperature, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 86: 604615.## ##]
An Exact Solution for Classic Coupled Thermoporoelasticity in Axisymmetric Cylinder
2
2
In this paper, the classic coupled porothermoelasticity model of hollow and solid cylinders under radial symmetric loading condition is considered. A full analytical method is used and an exact unique solution of the classic coupled equations is presented. The thermal and pressure boundary conditions, the body force, the heat source and the injected volume rate per unit volume of a distribute water source are considered in the most general forms and no limiting assumption is used. This generality allows simulation of several of the applicable problems.
1

129
143


M
Jabbari
Postgraduate School, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University
Postgraduate School, South Tehran Branch,
Iran
mjabbari@oiecgroup.com


H
Dehbani
Sama Technical and Vocational Training School, Islamic Azad University, Varamin Branch
Sama Technical and Vocational Training School,
Iran
Coupled Thermoporoelasticity
Hollow cylinder
Exact solution
[[1] Bai B., 2006, Response of saturated porous media subjected to local thermal loading on the surface of semiinfinite space, Acta Mechanica Sinica 22: 5461.##[2] Bai B., 2006, Fluctuation responses of saturated porous media subjected to cyclic thermal loading, Computers and Geotechnics 33: 396403.##[3] Droujinine A., 2006, Generalized an elastic asymptotic ray theory, Wave Motion 43: 357367.##[4] Bai B., Li T., 2009, Solution for cylinderical cavety in saturated thermoporoelastic medium, Acta Mechanica Sinica 22(1): 8592.##[5] Hetnarski R.B., 1964, Solution of the coupled problem of thermoelasticity in the form of series of functions, Archives of Mechanics (Archiwum Mechaniki Stosowanej) 16: 919941.##[6] Hetnarski R.B., Ignaczak J., 1993, Generalized thermoelasticity: Closedform solutions, Journal of Thermal Stresses 16: 473498.##[7] Hetnarski R.B., Ignaczak J., 1994, Generalized thermoelasticity: Response of semispace to a shortlaser pulse, Journal of Thermal Stresses 17: 377396.##[8] Georgiadis H.G., Lykotrafitis G., 2005, Rayleigh waves generated by a thermal source: A threedimensional transiant thermoelasticity solution, Journal of Applied Mechanics 72: 129138.##[9] Wagner P., 1994, Fundamental matrix of the system of dynamic linear thermoelasticity, Journal of Thermal Stresses 17: 549565.##[10] Jabbari M., Dehbani H., 2009, An exact solution for classic coupled thermoporoelasticity in cylindrical coordinates, Journal of Solid Mechanics 1(4): 343357.##[11] Jabbari M., Mohazzab A.H., Bahtui A., Eslami M.R., 2007, Analytical solution for threedimensional stresses in a short length FGM hollow cylinder, ZAMM Journal 87(6): 413429.## ##]
Inhomogeneity Material Effect on Electromechanical Stresses, Displacement and Electric Potential in FGM Piezoelectric Hollow Rotating Disk
2
2
In this paper, a radially piezoelectric functionally graded rotating disk is investigated by the analytical solution. The variation of material properties is assumed to follow a power law along the radial direction of the disk. Two resulting fully coupled differential equations in terms of the displacement and electric potential are solved directly. Numerical results for different profiles of inhomogeneity are also graphically displayed.
1

144
155


A
Ghorbanpour Arani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir


H
Khazaali
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran


M
Rahnama
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran


M
Dadkhah
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeynishahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khomeynishahr
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khomeynishah
Iran
Functionally graded material
Piezoelectric
Rotating disk
Analytical solution
[[1] Tiersten H.F., 1969, Linear Piezoelectric Plate Vibrations, Plenum, New York.##[2] Berlincourt D.A., 1971, Piezoelectric crystals and ceramics, in: Ultrasonic Transducer Materials, edited by O.E. Mattiat, Plenum, New York, 63124.##[3] Berlincourt D.A., Curran D.R., Jaffe H., 1964, Piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials and their function in transducers, in: Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, edited by W.P. Mason, Academic, New York, 169270.##[4] Jaffe B., Cook W.R. Jr, Jaffe H., 1971, Piezoelectric Ceramics, Academic, London.##[5] Grinchenko V.T., Ulitko A.F., Shul’ga N.A., 1989, Electroelasticity, In: Mechanics of Coupled Fields in Structural Members (in Russian), edited by A.N. Guz, (ed.), Volume 5 of the fivevolume series, Naukova Dumka, Kiev.##[6] Adelman N.T., Stavsky Y., Segal E., 1975, Axisymmetric vibrations of radially polarized piezoelectric ceramic cylinders, Journal of Sound and Vibration 38: 245254.##[7] Khoshgoftar M.J., Ghorbanpour, A., Arefi, M., 2009, Thermoelastic analysis of thick walled cylinder made of functionally graded piezoelectric material, Smart Materials and Structures 18:115007.##[8] Bayat M., Saleem M., Sahari B.B., Hamouda A.M.S., Mahdi E., 2007, Analysis of functionally graded rotating disks with variable thickness, ThinWalled Structures 45(78): 677691##[9] Chen, W.Q., 1999, Problems of radially polarized piezoelastic bodies, International Journal of Solids and Structures 36: 43174332.##[10] Ghorbanpour A., Golabi S., Saadatfar M., 2006, Stress and Electric Potential Fields in piezoelectric Smart Spheres, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 20: 19201933.##[11] Hou P.F., Ding H.J., Leung A.Y.T., 2006, The transient responses of a special inhomogeneous magnetoelectroelastic hollow cylinder for axisymmetric plane strain problem, Journal of Sound and Vibration 291: 1947.##[12] Babaei M.H., Chen Z.T., 2008, Analytical solution for the electromechanical behavior of a rotating functionally graded piezoelectric hollow shaft, Archive of Applied Mechanics 78: 489500.## ##]
Buckling Analysis of Polar Orthotropic Circular and Annular Plates of Uniform and Linearly Varying Thickness with Different Edge Conditions
2
2
This paper investigates symmetrical buckling of orthotropic circular and annular plates of continuous variable thickness. Uniform compression loading is applied at the plate outer boundary. Thickness varies linearly along radial direction. Inner edge is free, while outer edge has different boundary conditions: clamped, simply and elastically restraint against rotation. The optimized Ritz method is applied for buckling analysis. In this method, a polynomial function that is based on static deformation of orthotropic circular plates in bending is used. Also, by employing an exponential parameter in deformation function, eigenvalue is minimized in respect to this parameter. The advantage of this procedure is simplicity, in comparison with other methods, while whole algorithm for solution can be coded for computer programming. The effects of variation of radius, thickness, different boundary conditions, ratio of radial Young modulus to circumferential one, and ratio of outer radius to inner one in annular plates on buckling load factor are investigated. The obtained results show that in plate with identical thickness, increasing of outer radius decreases the buckling load factor. Moreover, increase of thickness of the plates results in increase of buckling load factor.
1

156
167


F
Farhatnia
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad University  Branch of Khomeinishahr
Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Islamic Azad
Iran
farhatnia@iaukhsh.ac.ir


A
Golshah
Iran Aircraft Manufacturing (HESA), Moallem Highway, Isfahan
Iran Aircraft Manufacturing (HESA), Moallem
Iran
Buckling
Orthotropic Plates
Circular and annular plates
Different edge conditions
[[1] WoinowskiKrieger S., 1958, Buckling stability of circularplates with circular cylindricalAeolotropy, IngenieurArchiv 26: 129131.##[2] Meink T., Huybrechts S., Ganley J., 1999, The effect of varying thickness on the buckling of orthotropic plate, Journal of Composite Materials 33: 10481061.##[3] Laura P.A.A, Gutierrez R.H., Sanzi H.C., Elvira G., 2000, Buckling of circular, solid and annular plates with an intermediate circular support, Ocean Engineering 27: 749755.##[4] Ciancio P.M., Reyes J.A., 2003, Buckling of circular annular plates of continuously variable thickness used as internal bulkheads in submersibles, Ocean engineering 30: 13231333.##[5] Bremec B., Kosel F., 2006, Thickness optimization of circular annular plates at buckling, ThinWalled Structures 32: 7481.##[6] Gutierrez R.H., Romanlli E., Laura P.A.A., 1996, Vibration and elastic stability of thin circular plates with variable profile, Journal of Sound and Vibration 195: 391399.##[7] Liang B., Zhang Sh., Chen D., 2007, Natural frequencies of circular annular plates with variable thickness by a new method, Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 84: 293297.##[8] Timoshenko S.P., Gere J.M., 1961, Theory of Elastic Stability, Second Edition, McGrawHill, New York.##[9] Gupta U.S., Lal R., Verma C.P., 1986, Buckling and vibrations of polar orthotropic annular plates of variable thickness, Journal of Sound and Vibration 104: 357369.## ##]
MagnetoThermoElastic Stresses and Perturbation of the Magnetic Field Vector in an EGM Rotating Disk
2
2
In this article, the magnetothermoelastic problem of exponentially graded material (EGM) hollow rotating disk placed in uniform magnetic and temperature fields is considered. Exact solutions for stresses and perturbations of the magnetic field vector in EGM hollow rotating disk are determined using the infinitesimal theory of magnetothermoelasticity under plane stress. The material properties, except Poisson’s ratio, are assumed to depend on variable of the radius and they are expressed as exponential functions of radius. The direct method is used to solve the heat conduction and Hypergeometric functions are employed to solve Navier equation. The temperature, displacement, and stress fields and the perturbation of the magnetic field vector are determined and compared with those of the homogeneous case. Hence, the effect of inhomogeneity on the stresses and the perturbation of magnetic field vector distribution are demonstrated. The results of this study are applicable for designing optimum EGM hollow rotating disk.
1

168
178


A
Ghorbanpour Arani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir


M
Azamia
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran


H
Sepiani
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty
Iran
EGM
Magnetothermoelastic
Rotating disk
Perturbation of Magnetic Field Vector
[[1] Suresh S., Mortensen A., 1998, Fundamentals of functionally graded materials, IOM Communications Limited, London, UK.##[2] Lutz M.P., Zimmerman R.W., 1996, Thermal stresses and effective thermal expansion coefficient of a functionally graded sphere, Journal of Thermal Stresses 19:3954.##[3] Zimmerman R.W., Lutz M.P., 1999, Thermal stresses and effective thermal expansion in an uniformly heated functionally graded cylinder, Journal of Thermal Stresses 22: 177188.##[4] Obata Y., Noda N., 1994, Steady thermal stresses in a hollow circular cylinder and a hollow sphere of a functionally gradient material, Journal of Thermal Stresses 17: 471487.##[5] Eslami M.R., Babaei M.H., Poultangari R., 2005, Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82: 522527.##[6] Dai H.L., Fu Y.M., 2007, Magnetothermoelastic interaction in hollow structures of functionally graded material subjected to mechanical loads, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 84: 132138.##[7] Hosseini Kordkheili S.A., Naghdabadi R., 2007, Thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded rotating disk, Composite Structures 79: 508516.##[8] Ghorbanpour A., Salari M., Khademizadeh H., Arefmanesh A., 2008, Magnetothermoelastic transient response of a functionally graded thick hollow sphere subjected to magnetic and thermoelastic fields, Archive of Applied Mechanics 79: 481497.##[9] Ghorbanpour A., Salari M., Khademizadeh H., Arefmanesh A., 2010, Magnetothermoelastic stress and perturbation of magnetic field vector in a functionally graded hollow sphere, Archive of Applied Mechanics 80: 189200.##[10] Khoshgoftar M.J., Ghorbanpour A., Arefi M., 2009, Thermoelastic analysis of a thick walled cylinder made of functionally graded piezoelectric material, Smart Materials and Structures 18: 18.##[11] Kraus J.D., 1984, Electromagnetic, McGrawHill, New York.##[12] Dai H.L., Wang X., 2004, Dynamic responses of piezoelectric hollow cylinders in an axial magnetic field, International Journal of Solids and Structures 41: 52315246.##[13] Seaborn J.B., 1991, Hypergeometric Functions and Their Applications, Springer, New York.## ##]
Application of Piezoelectric and Functionally Graded Materials in Designing Electrostatically Actuated Micro Switches
2
2
In this research, a functionally graded microbeam bonded with piezoelectric layers is analyzed under electric force. Static and dynamic instability due to the electric actuation is studied because of its importance in micro electro mechanical systems, especially in micro switches. In order to prevent pullin instability, two piezoelectric layers are used as sensor and actuator. A current amplifier is used to supply input voltage of the actuator from the output of the sensor layer. Using Hamilton’s principle and EulerBernoulli theory, equation of motion of the system is obtained. It is shown that the load type (distributed or concentrated) applied to the micro beam from the piezoelectric layer, depends on the shape of the actuator layer (E.g. rectangle, triangular). Finite element method is implemented for evaluation of displacement field in the micro beam and dynamic response of the micro beam under electric force is calculated using finite difference method. Effect of squeeze film damping on pullin voltage and timeresponse of the system is considered using nonlinear Reynolds equation. Effect of several parameters such as gain value between piezoelectric sensor and actuator layer, profile of functionally material, and geometry of the system is considered on dynamic behavior of the micro beam especially on pullin instability. Results are verified for simple cases with previous related studies in the literature and good agreements were achieved. Results indicate that increasing gain value between sensor and actuator enhances stiffness of the system and will raise pullin voltage. Also, dependency of dynamic properties of the system such as amplitude and frequency of vibration on functionally graded material profile is shown. The material distribution of the functionally graded material is designed in such a way that results in a specific pullin voltage.
1

179
189


A
Hosseinzadeh
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics
Iran


M.T
Ahmadian
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics
Iran
ahmadian@mech.sharif.ir
Piezoelectric
Functionally graded material
Microbeam
Static and dynamic instability
[[1] Hu Y.C., Chang C.M., Huang S.C., 2004, Some design considerations on the electrostatically actuated microstructures, Sensors and Actuators A 112: 155161.##[2] Osterberg P.M., 1995, Electrostatically Actuated Micro Electromechanical Test Structures for Material Property Measurement, PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.##[3] Ahmadian M.T., Borhan H., Esmailzadeh E., 2009, Dynamic analysis of geometrically nonlinear and electrostatically actuated microbeams, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation 14(4): 16271645.##[4] Nayfeh A.H., Younis M.I., 2004, A new approach to the modeling and simulation of flexible microstructures under the effect of squeeze film damping, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 14(2): 170181.##[5] Moghimi Zand M., Ahmadian M.T., 2009, Vibrational analysis of electrostatically actuated microstructures considering nonlinear effects, Communications in Nonlinear Science and Numerical Simulation, 14(4): 16641678.##[6] Lin Ch.Ch., Huang H.N., 1999, Vibration control of beamplates with bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators, Computers and Structures 73: 239248.##[7] Collet M., Walter V., Delobelle P., 2003, Active damping of a microcantilever piezocomposite beam, Journal of Sound and Vibration 260: 453476.##[8] Meirovitch L., 1997, Principles and Techniques of Vibrations, Englewood Cliffs, Prentice Hall Inc, Nj.##[9] Moheimani R., Fleming A.J., 2006, Piezoelectric Transducers for Vibration Control and Damping (Advances in Industrial Control), First Edition, Springer.##[10] Preumont A., 2006, Mechatronics: Dynamics of Electromechanical and Piezoelectric Systems, Springer.##[11] Najafizadeh M.M., Eslami M.R., 2002, Firstorder theory based thermo elastic stability of functionally graded material circular plates, AIAA Journal 40: 14441450.##[12] Veijola T., Kuisma H., Lahdenpera J., Ryhanen T., 1995, Equivalentcircuit model of the squeezed gas film in a silicon accelerometer, Sensors and Actuators A 48: 235248.##[13] Jang D.S., Kim D.E, 1996, Tribological behavior of ultrathin soft metallic deposits on hard substrates, Wear 196: 171179.##[14] Moghimi Zand M., Ahmadian M.T., 2007, Characterization of coupleddomain multilayer micro plates in pullin phenomenon, vibrations and dynamics, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 49: 12261237.##[15] Krylov S., 2007, Lyapunov exponents as a criterion for the dynamic pullin instability of electrostatically actuated microstructures, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanics 42(4): 626642.## ##]
Cell Deformation Modeling Under External Force Using Artificial Neural Network
2
2
Embryogenesis, regeneration and cell differentiation in microbiological entities are influenced by mechanical forces. Therefore, development of mechanical properties of these materials is important. Neural network technique is a useful method which can be used to obtain cell deformation by the means of forcegeometric deformation data or vice versa. Prior to insertion in the needle injection process, deformation and geometry of cell under external pointload is a key element to understand the interaction between cell and needle. In this paper, the goal is the prediction of cell membrane deformation under a certain force and to visually estimate the force of indentation on the membrane from membrane geometries. The neural network input and output parameters are associated to a three dimensional model without the assumption of the adherent affects. The neural network is modeled by applying error back propagation algorithm. In order to validate the strength of the developed neural network model, the results are compared with the experimental data on mouse oocyte and mouse embryos that are captured from literature. The results of the modeling match nicely the experimental findings.
1

190
198


M.T
Ahmadian
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics
Iran
ahmadian@mech.sharif.ir


G.R
Vossoughi
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics and Automation (CEDRA), School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
Center of Excellence in Design, Robotics
Iran


A.A
Abbasi
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
School of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif
Iran


P
Raeissi
Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
Biological cells
Artificial Neural Network
Error back propagation algorithm
[[1] Lim, C.T., Zhou, E.H., Quek, S.T., 2006, Mechanical models for living cells  a review, Journal of Biomechanics 39: 195216.##[2] Sen, S., Subramanian S., Discher D.E., 2005, Indentation and adhesive probing of a cell membrane with AFM: Theoretical model and experiments, Biophysical Journal 89: 32033213.##[3] Lulevich V., Zink T., Chen H.Y., Liu F.T., Liu G.Y., 2006, Cell Mechanics using atomic force microscopy  based singlecell compression, Langmuir 22:81518155.##[4] Dao M., Lim C.T., Suresh S., 2003, Mechanics of the human red blood cell deformed by optical tweezers, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 51: 22592280.##[5] Thoumine O.,Ott A., 1997, Time scale dependent viscoelastic and contractile regimes in fibroblasts probed by microplate manipulation, Journal of Cell Science 110: 21092116.##[6] Vaziri A., Kaazempur Mofrad M.R., 2007, Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration Experiment, Journal of Biomechanics 40: 20532062.##[7] He J.H., Xu W., Zhu L., 2007, Analytical model for extracting mechanical properties of a single cell in a tapered micropipette, Applied Physics Letters 90: 023901.##[8] Sterjovski Z., Nolan D., Carpenter K.R., Dunne D.P., Norrish J., 2005, Artificial neural networks for modelling the mechanical properties of steels in various applications, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 170: 536544.##[9] Dashtbayazi M.R., Shokuhfar A., Simchi A., 2007, Artificial neural network modeling of mechanical alloying process for synthesizing of metal matrix nanocomposite powders, Materials Science and Engineering A 466: 274283.##[10] Sun Y., Wan K.T., Roberts K.P., Bischof J.C., Nelson B.J., 2003, Mechanical Property Characterization of Mouse Zona Pellucida, IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience 2: 279286.##[11] Zahalak G.I., McConnaughey W.B., Elson E.L., 1990, Determination of cellular mechanical properties by cell poking, with an application to leukocytes, Journal of biomechanical engineering 112: 283294.##[12] Bahrami A., Mousavi Anijdan S.H., Madaah Hosseini H.R.,2005, Effective parameters modeling in compression of an austenitic stainless steel using artificial neural network, Computational Materials Science 34: 335341.##[13] Yazdanmehr M., Mousavi Anijdan S.H., Samadi A., Bahrami A., 2009, Mechanical behavior modeling of nanocrystalline NiAl compound by a feedforward backpropagation multilayer perceptron ANN, Computational Materials Science 44: 12311235.##[14] Samarasinghe S., 2006, Neural Networks for Applied Sciences and Engineering: From Fundamentals to Complex Pattern Reorganization, Auerbach Publications, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Roton, New York.##[15] Sarangapani J., 2006, Neural Network Control of Nonlinear DiscreteTime Systems, CRC Press ,Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Roton, London, New York.##[16] Flückiger M., 2004, Cell Membrane Mechanical Modeling for Microrobotic Cell Manipulation, Diploma Thesis, ETHZ Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, WS03/04.## ##]