Numerical and Experimental Research of Deep Drawing Process

Document Type: Research Paper

Author

Department of Material, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch

Abstract

There are mainly two methods of deep drawing analysis; experimental and analytical/numerical. Experimental analysis can be useful in analyzing the process to determine the process parameters that produce a defect free product, and the analytical/numerical modeling can be used to model and analyze the process through all stages of deformation. This approach is less time consuming and more economical.  Sheet metal forming often includes biaxial in-plane deformation with non-proportional strain paths. In deep drawing of cylindrical cup, the deformation in the flange in dominated by pure shear deformation, while it changes to plane strain when the material is drawn into the die. This paper deals with the analysis of deep drawing of circular blanks into axi-symmetric cylindrical cup using numerical modeling. The blank drawability has been related both theoretically and experimentally with the initial diameter of the blank and deep drawing parameters. The strains in the radial and circumferential directions have been measured. A correlation on the flange thickness variation by taking into account the work hardening with the analytical and experimental values also has been searched.

Keywords


[1] Sattari H., Sedaghati R., Ganesan R., 2007, Analysis and design optimization of deep drawing process, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 184:84-92.
[2] Kroplin B., Luckey E., 1994, Metal forming process simulation in industry, International Conference and Workshop, Baden-Baden, Germany, 28-30.
[3] Lee J.K., Kinzel G.L, Wagoner R., 1994, Numerical simulation of 3D sheet metal forming processes, verification of simulations with experiments, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on NUMISHEET 96, The Ohio State University, Dearborn, Michigan.
[4] Gerdeen J.C., Chen P., 1989, Geometric mapping method of computer modeling of sheet metal forming, NUMISHEET 89, Seoul, 437-444.
[5] Chung K., Lee D., 1984, Computer-aided analysis of sheet material forming processes, First International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, Tokyo, Japan, 660-665.
[6] Sklad M.P., Yungblud B.A., 1992, Analysis of multioperation sheet forming processes, NUMISHEET 92, Sophia Antipolis, 543-547.
[7] Chung K., Richmond O., 1992, Sheet forming process design on ideal forming theory, NUMISHEET 92, Sophia Antipolis, 455- 460.
[8] Batoz J.L., Duroux P., Guo Y.Q., Detraux J.M., 1989, An efficient algorithm to estimate the large strains in deep drawing, NUMISHEET 89 , Seoul, 383-388.
[9] Batoz J.L., Naceur H., Barlet O., Guo Y.Q., Knopf-Lenoir C., 1996, Optimum design of blank contours in axi-symmetrical deep drawing process, In Book: Advances in Computational Mechanics, International Academic Publisher, Beijing, China, 113-125.
[10] Guo Y.Q., Batoz J.L., Naceur H., Bouabdallah S., Mercier F., Barlet O., 2000, Recent developments on the analysis and optimum design of sheet metal forming parts using a simplified inverse approach, Computers & Structures 78:133-148.
[11] Naceur H., Delam´eziere A., Batoz J.L., Guo Y.Q., Knopf-Lenoir C., 2004, Some improvements on the optimum process design in deep drawing using the inverse approach, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 146 (2):250-262.
[12] Barlet O., Batoz J.L., Guo Y.Q., Mercier F., Naceur H., Knopf-Lenoir C., 1996, The inverse approach and mathematical programming techniques for optimum design of sheet forming parts, Biennial European Joint Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis, Montpellier, France 3:227-232.
[13] Chateau X.A., 1994, Simplified approach for sheet forming processes design, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 36 (6):579-597.
[14] Dhatt G., Touzot G., Maloine S.A., 1981, Unepr´Esentation de la M´ethode des ´El´ements Finis L’ Universit´e Laval Qu´ebec, Paris.
[15] Batoz J.L, Mod Dhatt G., 1992, ´Elisation des Structures par ´El´ements Finis, Herm'es, Paris.
[16] O˜nate E., Kleiber M., Agelet de Saracibar C., 1988, Plastic and viscoplastic flow of void-containing metals. Applications to axisymmetric sheet forming problems, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 25:227-251.
[17] Matthies H., Strang G., 1979, The solution of nonlinear finite element equations, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 14:1613-1626.
[18] Owen D.R.J., Hinton E., 1980, Finite Elements in Plasticity:Theory and Practice, Pineridge press, Swansea Univercity, UK.
[19] Peric D., Owen D.R.J., Honnor M.E., 1991, Simulation of Thin Sheet Metal Forming Processes Employing a Thin Shell Element FE Simulation of 3-D Sheet Metal Forming Processes in Automotive Industry, VDI Verlag, Switzerland, Zurich, 569-600.
[20] Hibbitt H.D., Marcal P.V., Rice J.R., 1970, A finite element formulation for problems of large strain and large displacement, International Journal of Solids and Structures 6:1069-1086.
[21] McMeeking R.M., Rice J.R., 1975, Finite-element formulations for problems of large elastic-plastic deformation, International Journal of Solids and Structures 11:601-616.
[22] Washizu K., 1982, Variational Methods in Elasticity and Plasticity, Pergamon press, Oxford.
[23] Lee E.H., 1969, Elastic-plastic deformation at finite strains, Journal of Applied Mechanics 36:1-6.
[24] Chung T.J., 1988, Continuum Mechanics, Prentice Hall, USA, New Jersey.
[25] Arora J.S., 1989, Introduction to Optimum Design, Mc Graw-Hill, USA.
[26] Vanderplaats G.N., 1984, Numerical Optimization Techniques for Engineering Design With Applications, McGraw-Hill,USA.
[27] Topping B.H.V., Robinson D.J., 1984, Selecting non-linear optimization techniques for structural design, International Journal for Computer-Aided Engineering and Software 1(3): 48-54.
[28] Prasad B., Haftka R.T., 1979, Optimal structural design with plate finite elements, Journal of the Structural Division 105(11):2367-2382.
[29] Rohan E., Whiteman J.R., 2000, Shape optimization of elastoplastic structures and continua, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 23:68-76.
[30] Steel Solution, 2010, Deep Drawing, www.arcelormittal.com.
[31] Semenov E.I., 1983, Handbook of Sheet Metal Forming, Machinery-Building, Moscow, Russia.
[32] Romanovski V.P., 1979, Handbook of Cold Stamping, Moscow, Machinery-Building.
[33] Kenum Y. T., Wang C.T., Saran M. J., Wagner R. H., 1992, Practical die design via section analysis, Journal of Material Processing Technology 35:1-36.
[34] Popov E.A., 1977, Foundations of Sheet Metal Forming Theory, Machinery-Building, Moscow, Russia.
[35] Popov E.A., Kovalyov V.G.2003, Technology of Sheet Metal Forming, Bauman MSTU Publication, Moscow, Russia.
[36] Storoschev M.V., Popov E.A., 1977, Theory of Metal Forming Proceeding, Machinery-Building, Moscow, Russia.
[37] Hosford W.F., 1993, The Mechanics of Crystals and Polycrystals, Oxford University Press, USA.
[38] Chung S.Y., Swift H.W., 1951, Cup drawing from a flat blank, Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, UK, 165:211-228.
[39] Woo D.M., 1968, On the complete solution of a deep-drawing problem, International Journal of Mechanical Science 10:83-94.
[40] Mahdavian S.M., He D., 1995, Product thickness analysis in pure cup drawing, Journal of Material Processing Technology 51:387-406.
[41] Marciniak Z., Duncan J.L., Hu S.J., 2002, Mechanics of Sheet Metal Forming, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, USA.
[42] Hosford W. F., Caddel R.M., 2007, Metal Forming, Mechanic and Metallurgy, Cambridge Univercity, Press MI, USA.
[43] Nazaryan E., Konstantinov V., 1999, Kinematics of straining in deformation operations of sheet stamping, Bulletin of Machine Building 2:35-41.
[44] Arab N., Nazaryan E., 2009, Modeling deep drawing of cylindrical cup, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research 4:2487-2496.
[45] Arab N., 2010, New theoretical calculation of limit drawing ratio by taking into account material parameters changes during deep drawing of cylindrical cup, International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 5:139-146.
[46] Arab N., Nazaryan E., Arakelyan M., Markosyan A., 2009, Mechanics of Forming Thin Ring Plates, IDDRG International Conference , Golden, Co, USA.
[47] Arab N., Nazaryan E., 2013, Stress and strain paths in deep drawing of cylindrical cup, International Research Journal of Engineering Science, Technology and Innovation 2(3):51-56.