Investigation on the Effect of Tigthening Torque on the Stress Distribution in Double Lap Simple Bolted and Hybrid (Bolted -Bonded) Joints

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University

2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz


In this research, the effects of torque tightening on the stress distribution in double lap simple bolted and hybrid (bolted-bonded) joints have been investigated numerically. In order to determine the bolt clamping force value due to tightening torque in simple bolted and hybrid joints, which is necessary in numerical simulation, an experimental approach has been proposed. To do so, two kinds of joints, i.e. double lap simple and hybrid joints were prepared. To determine the bolt clamping force or pretension resulting from the torque tightening, at different applied torques, for both kinds of joints a special experimental method was designed using a steel hollow cylinder that was placed between the nut and the plate. In order to obtain the stress distribution in the joint plates for both kinds of the joints, with two different amounts of tightening torque, three-dimensional finite element models were simulated by a general finite element code. The obtained results revealed that the amounts of resultant stresses were reduced by increasing the tightening torque due to compressive stresses. Furthermore, in the hybrid joints, the stress concentration around the hole is reduced significantly. Finally, the comparison of the obtained results, confirms that the hybrid joints have better static strength than simple joints for all levels of the tightening torque.             


[1] Esmaeili F., Chakherlou T.N., Zehsaz M., 2014, Prediction of fatigue life in aircraft double lap bolted joints using several multiaxial fatigue criteria, Materials and Design 59: 430-438.
[2] Esmaeili F., Chakherlou T.N., Zehsaz M., Hasanifard S., 2013, Investigating the effect of clamping force on the fatigue life of bolted plates using volumetric approach, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 27(12):3657-3664.
[3] Iancu F., Ding X., Cloud G.L., Raju B.B., Hahn G.T., 2005, Three-dimensional investigation of thick single-lap bolted joints, Experimental Mechanics 45(4): 351-358.
[4] Essam A., Bahkali A., 2011, Finite element modeling for thermal stresses developed in riveted and rivet-bonded joints, International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS 11(6): 106-112.
[5] Fu M., Mallick P.K., 2001, Fatigue of hybrid (adhesive/bolted) joints in SRIM composites, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 21(2): 145-159.
[6] Gomez S., Onoro J., Pecharroman J., 2007, A simple mechanical model of a structural hybrid adhesive/riveted single lap joint, International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives 27(4): 263-267.
[7] Hart-Smith L.J., 1985, Bonded-bolted composite joints, Journal of Aircraft 22(11): 993-1000.
[8] Allan R.C., Bird J., Clarke J.D., 1988, Use of adhesives in repair of cracks in ship structures, Materials Science and Technology 4(10): 853-859.
[9] Camanho P.P., Tavares C.M.L., Oliveira R.d., Marques A.T., Ferreira A.J.M., 2005, Increasing the efficiency of composite single-shear lap joints using bonded inserts, Composites Part B: Engineering 36(5): 372-383.
[10] Chan W.S., Vedhagiri S., 2001, Analysis of composite bonded/bolted joints used in repairing, Journal of Composite Materials 35(12): 1045-1061.
[11] Kelly G., 2005, Load transfer in hybrid (bonded/bolted) composite single-lap joints, Composite Structures 69(1): 35-43.
[12] Barut A., Madenci E., 2009, Analysis of bolted-bonded composite single-lap joints under combined in-plane and transverse loading, Composite Structures 88(4): 579-594.
[13] Paroissien E., Sartor M., Huet J., Lachaud F., 2007, Analytical two-dimensional model of a hybrid (bolted/bonded) single-lap joint, Journal of Aircraft 44(2): 573-582.
[14] Sugaya T., Obuchi T., Chiaki S., 2011, Influences of loading rates on stress-strain relations of cured bulks of brittle and ductile adhesives, Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering 5(12): 921-928.
[15] Kweon J., Jung J., Kim T., Chai J., Kim D., 2006, Failure of carbon composite-to aluminum joints with combined mechanical fastening and adhesive bonding, Composite Structures 75(1-4): 192-198.
[16] Iyer K., Rubin C.A., Hahn G.T., 2001, Influence of interference and clamping on fretting fatigue in single rivet-row lap joints, Journal of Tribology-transactions of the ASME 123(4): 686-698.
[17] Aragon A., Alegre J.M., Gutierrez-Solana F., 2006, Effect of clamping force on the fatigue behaviour of punched plates subjected to axial loading, Engineering Failure Analysis 13(2): 271-281.
[18] Sekercioglu T., Kovan V., 2008, Torque strength of bolted connections with locked anaerobic adhesive, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Journal of Materials: Design and Applications 222 (1): 83-90.
[19] Chakherlou T.N., Abazadeh B., Vogwell J., 2009, The effect of bolt clamping force on the fracture strength and the stress intensity factor of a plate containing a fastener hole with edge cracks, Engineering Failure Analysis 16(1): 242-253.
[20] Oskouei R.H., Chakherlou T.N., 2009, Reduction in clamping force due to applied longitudinal load to aerospace Structural bolted plates, Aerospace Science and Technology 13(6): 325-330.
[21] Budynas R.G., Nisbett J.K., 2011, Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, McGraw-Hill.
[22] Chakherlou T.N., Alvandi-Tabrizi Y., Kiani A., 2011, On the fatigue behavior of cold expanded fastener holes subjected to bolt tightening, International Journal of Fatigue 33(6): 800-810.
[23] Collings T.A., 1977, The strength of bolted joints in multi-directional CFRP laminates, Composites 8(1): 43-54.
[24] Stockdale J.H., Matthews F.L., 1976, The effect of clamping pressure on bolt bearing loads in glass fiber-reinforced plastics, Composites 7(1): 34-39.
[25] Deng X., Hutchinson J.W., 1998, The Clamping Stress in a Cold Driven Rivet, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 40(7): 683-694.
[26] Nah H.S., Lee H.J., Kim K.S., Kim J.H., Kim W.B., 2009, Method for estimating the clamping force of high strength bolts subjected to temperature variation, International Journal of Steel Structures 9(2): 123-130.
[27] Technical Data Sheet, 2003, Product 3421, Loctite Corp, Dublin.
[28] Oskouei R.H., 2005, An investigation into bolt clamping effects on distributions of stresses and strains near fastener hole and its effect on fatigue life, MSc thesis, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
[29] Swanson Analysis Systems Inc,2004, ANSYS, Release 9.
[30] De Angelis F., 2012, A comparative analysis of linear and nonlinear kinematic hardening rules in computational elastoplasticity, Technische Mechanik 32 (2-5):164-173.
[31] De Angelis F., 2000, An internal variable variational formulation of viscoplasticity, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 190( 1-2) : 35-54.
[32] De Angelis F., 2007, A variationally consistent formulation of nonlocal plasticity, Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering 5 (2):105-116.