Analysis of the Fracture of a Turbine Blade

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jahrom University

2 College of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University


The cause of crack initiation turbine blade had initially cracked by a fatigue mechanism over a period of time and then fractured by the overload at the last moment. Experimental procedure consists of macroscopic inspection, material verification, microscopic examination, and metallographic analysis and finally FE. And for these procedures, some specimens were prepared from a fractured blade. Using ICP and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, the chemical composition of the blade was carefully analyzed. The segregated area of Ti and Mo, caused generally by inappropriate manufacturing process, is found by the microstructure and EDX analysis of the blade. The fracture blade which installed on the third stage rotor of the turbojet was fractured at about 6 cm distance from the hub of proposed blade. The non-linear finite element method (FEM) was utilized in order to define the stress state of the disc or blade segment under operating conditions. High stress zones were found at the region of the lower fir-tree slot, where the failure occurred. A computation were also achieved with excessive rotational speed. The aim of this study is devoted to the mechanisms of damage of the turbine disc, and furthermore the critical high stress areas.


[1] Lucjan W., 2006, Failure analysis of turbine disc of an aero engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 13: 9-17.
[2] Chan S.K., Tuba I.S., 1971, A finite element method for contact problems of solid bodies–Part II: Applications to turbine blade fastenings, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 13: 627-639.
[3] Masataka M., 1992, Root and groove contact analysis for steam turbine blades, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 35:508-514.
[4] Meguid S.A., Kanth P.S., Czekanski A., 2000, Finite element analysis of fir-tree region in turbine disc, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 35:305-317.
[5] Papanikos P., Meguid S.A., Stjepanovic Z., 1998, Three-dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of dovetail joints in aero-engine discs, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 29:173-186.
[6] Zboinski G.,1995, Physical and geometrical non-linearities in contact problems of elastic turbine blade attachments, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 209: 273-286.
[7] McEvily A., 2004, Failures in inspection procedures: case studies, Engineering Failure Analysis 11:167-176.
[8] Hou J., Wicks B.J., Antoniou R.A., 2002, An investigations of fatigue failures of turbine blades in a gas turbine engine by mechanical analysis, Engineering Failure Analysis 9:201-211.
[9] Bhaumik S.K., 2002, Failure of turbine rotor blisk of an aircraft engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 287-301.
[10] Park M., Hwang Y., Choi Y., Kim T., 2002, Analysis of a J69-T-25 engine turbine blade fracture, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 593-601.
[11] Treager I., 1995, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Technology, McGraw Hill.
[12] Kyo-Soo S., Seon-Gab K., Daehan J., Young-Ha H., 2007, Analysis of the fracture of a turbine blade on a turbojet engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 14 : 877-883.
[13] Backman D. G., Mourer D. P., Bain K. R., Walston W. S., 2003, AIM- A new methodology for developing disk materials, Advanced Materials and Processes for Gas Turbines .
[14] Murakumo T., Kobayashi T., Koizumi Y., Harada H., 2004, Creep behavior of ni-base single-crystal super-alloys withvarious gamma volume fraction, Acta Materialia 52 (12): 3737-3744.
[15] Karunarante M. S. A., Reed R. C., 2003, Interdiffusion of platinum- group metals in nickel at elevated temperatures, Acta Materialia 51(10): 2905-2914.
[16] Reed R. C., Karunarantne M. S. A., 2000, Interdiffusion in the face- centered cubic phase of Ni-Re, Ni-Ta and Ni-W systems between 900◦C and 1300◦C, Materials Science and Engineering A 281(1–2): 229-233.
[17] WalstonW. S., Cetel A., MacKay R., O’Hara K., Duhl D., Dreshfield R., 2004, Joint development of a fourth generation single crystal super-alloys, Super-Alloys 2004:15-24.
[18] Tanaka R., 2008, Research and development of ultra-high temperature materials in japan, Materials at High Temperatures 26(4): 457-464.
[19] Pollock T. M., Argon A. S., 1992, Creep resistance of CMSX-3 nickel base super-alloys single crystals, Acta Metallurgia et Materialia 40(6):1-30.
[20] McLean M., Dyson B. F., 2010, Modeling the effects of damage and microstructural evolution on the creep behavior of engineering alloys, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 131:273-278.
[21] Pollock T. M., Field R. D., 2012, Dislocations and high temperature plastic deformation of super-alloys single crystals, Dislocations in Solids 2012:549-618.
[22] ASM Handbook, ASM International 2: 951.
[23] Meetham G.W.,1996, Contribution of materials to the development of the gas turbine engine, Metall Mater Technology 1996: 589-602.
[24] Pollock T. M., Field R. D., 2002, Dislocations and high temperature plastic deformation of super-alloy single crystals, Dislocations in Solids 11: 549-618.
[25] Rae C.M.F., Cox D.C., Rist M.A., Reed R.C., Matan N.C., 2000, On the primary creep of CMSX-4 super-alloy single crystals, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 31(9): 2219-2228.
[26] Muller L., Glatzel U., Feller-Kniepmeier M., 1992, Modelling thermal misfit stresses in nickel-base super-alloys containing high volume fraction of gamma’ phase, Acta Metallurgia ET Materialia 40: 1321-1327.
[27] Schneider M. C., Gu J. P., Beckermann C., Boettinger W. J., Kattner U. R., 1997, Modeling of micro- and macros-egregation and freckle formation in single crystal nickel-base super-alloys during directional solidification, Metallurgical Transactions A 28(7):1517-1531.
[28] Auburtin P., Cockcroft S. L., Mitchell A., 1996, Freckle formation in super-alloys, Super-alloys 1996: 443-450.
[29] Miner R.V., Gayada J., Maier R.D., 1982, Fatigue and creep fatigue deformation of several nickel-base super-alloys at 650◦C, Metallurgical Transactions A 13(10):1755-1765.
[30] McLean M., Dyson B. F., 2000, Modeling the effects of damage and microstructural evolution on the creep behavior of engineering alloys, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 131: 273-278.
[31] Carter Tim J., 2005, Common failures in gas turbine blade, Engineering Failure Analysis 12: 237-247.
[32] ASM Handbook, ASM International 28:50.
[33] Mercer C., Shademn S., Soboyejo W.O.,2003, An investigation of the micro-mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in structural gas turbine engine alloy, Journal of Materials Science 38:291-305.
[34] Luo J., Bowen P., 2004, Small and long fatigue crack growth behavior of a PM Ni-based super-alloy, International Journal of Fatigue 26:113-124.
[35] Jiang L., Brooks C.R., Liaw P.K., Klarstrom D.L., Rawn C.J., Muenchen B., 2001, Phenomenological aspects of the high-cycle fatigue of ULTIMET alloy, Materials Science and Engineering 316:66-79.
[36] Neal D.F., Blenkinsop P.A., 1976, Internal fatigue origins in a–b titanium alloys, Acta Metallurgica 24: 59-63.
[37] Boyd-Lee A.D., 1999, Fatigue crack growth resistant microstructures in polycrystalline Ni-base super-alloys for aeroengines, International Journal of Fatigue 21:393-405.
[38] MSC-Patran User’s Manual, 2009, MSC Corporation, Los Angeles.
[39] Park M., Hwang Y., Choi Y., Kim T., 2002, Analysis of a J69-T-25 engine turbine blade fracture, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 593-601.
[40] Pollock T.M., Tin S., 2006, Nickel-based supe-ralloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry, microstructure, and properties , Journal of Propulsion and Power 22(2): 361-374.
[41] Khurana S., Navte J., Singh H., 2012, Effect of cavitation on hydraulic turbines – a review, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 2: 172 -177.
[42] Momcilvic D., Odanovic Z., Mitrovic R., Atanasovska I., Vuherer T., 2012, Failure analysis of hydraulic turbine shaft, Engineering Failure Analysis 29: 54-66.
[43] Momcilovic D., Motrovic R., Antanasovska I., Vuherer T., 2012, Methodology of determination the influence of corrosion pit on the decrease of hydro turbine shaft fatigue failure, Machine Design 4(4): 231 - 236.
[44] Neopane H.P., 2010, Sediment Erosion in Hydro Turbines, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Fluid Engineering, Norway.
[45] Belash I., 2010, Causes of the failure of the no. 2 hydraulic generating set at the Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP: criticality of reliability enhancement for waterpower equipment, Power Technology and Engineering 44(3):165-170.
[46] Ferreño D., Álvarez J.A., Ruiz E., Méndez D., Rodríguez L., Hernández D., 2011, Failure analysis of a Pelton turbine manufactured in soft martensitic stainless steel casting, Engineering Failure Analysis 18(1):256-270.
[47] Egusquiza E., Valero C., Estévez A., Guardo A., Coussirat M., 2011, Failures due to ingested bodies in hydraulic turbines, Engineering Failure Analysis 18(1): 464-473.
[48] Luo Y., Wang Z., Zeng J., Lin J., 2010, Fatigue of piston rod caused by unsteady, unbalanced, unsynchronized blade torques in a Kaplan turbine, Engineering Failure Analysis 17(1):192-199.