An Efficient Finite Element Formulation Based on Deformation Approach for Bending of Functionally Graded Beams

Document Type: Research Paper


1 National Centre of Integrated Studies and research on Building Engineering (CNERIB), Algeria

2 LGCH Laboratory, University of Guelma, Algeria



Finite element formulations based generally on classical beam theories such as Euler-Bernoulli or Timoshenko. Sometimes, these two formulations could be problematic expressed in terms of restrictions of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, in case of thicker beams due to non-consideration of transverse shear; phenomenon that is known as shear locking characterized the Timoshenko beam theory, in case of thin beams; problem of slow of convergence in regards to the element of Timoshenko beam. In responding to this problematic, a new beam finite element model is developed to study the static bending of functionally graded beams. The originality of this model lies in the use of a deformation approach with the consideration of a central node positioned in the middle of the beam. The degrees of freedom of this node are subsequently eliminated by the method of static condensation. In addition, this model is suitable for all linear structures regardless of L/h ratio. Functionally graded material beams have a smooth variation of material properties due to continuous change in micro structural details. The mechanical properties of the beam are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. A simply supported beam subjected to uniform load for different length-to-thickness ratio has been chosen in the analysis. Finite element solutions obtained with the new finite element model are presented, and the obtained results are evaluated with the existing solutions to verify the validity of the present model. 


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