2016
8
2
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1

Nonlocal Vibration of YSWCNT Conveying Fluid Considering a General Nonlocal Elastic Medium
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523170.html
1
In this paper, a nonlocal foundation model is proposed to analyze the vibration and instability of a Yshaped singlewalled carbon nanotube (YSWCNT) conveying fluid. In order to achieve more accurate results, fourth order beam theory is utilized to obtain straindisplacement relations. For the first time, a nonlocal model is presented based on nonlocal elasticity and the effects of nonlocal forces from adjacent and nonadjacent elements on deflection are considered. The Eringen’s theory is utilized due to its capability to consider the size effect. Based on Hamilton’s principle, motion equations as well as boundary conditions are derived and solved by means of hybrid analyticalnumerical method. It is believed that the presented general foundation model offers an exact and effective new approach to investigate vibration characteristics of this kind of structures embedded in an elastic medium. The results of this investigation may provide a useful reference in controlling systems in nanoscale.
0

232
246


A.H
Ghobanpour Arani
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran


A
Rastgoo
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Iran


A
Ghorbanpour Arani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Institute of Nanoscience& Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Iran
aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir


M. Sh.
Zarei
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran
Iran
YSWCNT
Nonlocal foundation model
Nonlocal elasticity theory
Fourth order beam theory
Hamilton’s principle
[[1] Terrones M., Banhart F., Grobert N., Charlier J.C., Terrones H., Ajayan P., 2002, Molecular junctions by joining singlewalled carbon nanotubes, Physical Review Letters 89: 075505.##[2] Andriotis A., Menon M., Srivastava D., Chernozatonskii L., 2001, Rectification properties of carbon nanotube Yjunctions, Physical Review Letters 87: 066802.##[3] Papadopoulos C., Rakitin A, Li J., Vedeneev A., Xu J., 2000, Electronic transport in Yjunction carbon nanotubes, Physical Review Letters 85(16): 3476.##[4] Bandaru P., Daraio C., Jin S., Rao A., 2005, Novel electrical switching behaviour and logic in carbon nanotube Yjunctions, Nature Materials 4: 663668.##[5] Sattler K. D., 2010, Handbook of Nanophysics: Nanotubes and Nanowires, CRC press.##[6] Biró L. P., Horváth Z. E., Márk G. I., Osváth Z., A.A. Koós , Benito A. M., Maser W., Lambin P., 2004, Carbon nanotube Y junctions: growth and properties, Diamond and Related Materials 13: 241249.##[7] Choi Y. C.,Choi W., 2005, Synthesis of Yjunction singlewall carbon nanotubes, Carbon 43: 27372741.##[8] Park J. H., Sinnott S. B., Aluru N. R., 2006, Ion separation using a Yjunction carbon nanotube, Nanotechnology 17: 895900.##[9] Zhang J., Lu J., Xia Q., 2007, Research on the valveless piezoelectric pump with Yshape pipes, Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering in China 2: 144151.##[10] Filiz S., Aydogdu M., 2010, Axial vibration of carbon nanotube heterojunctions using nonlocal elasticity, Computational Materials Science 49: 619627.##[11] Avramidis I. E., Morfidis K., 2006, Bending of beams on threeparameter elastic foundation, International Journal of Solids and Structures 43: 357375.##[12] Challamel N., Meftah S. A., Bernard F., 2010, Buckling of elastic beams on nonlocal foundation: a revisiting of reissner model, Mechanics Research Communications 37: 472475.##[13] Failla G., Santini A., Zingales M., 2012, A nonlocal twodimensional foundation model, Archive of Applied Mechanics 83: 253272.##[14] Shen H. S., 2011, A novel technique for nonlinear analysis of beams on twoparameter elastic foundations, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics 11: 9991014.##[15] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Shajari A. R., Amir S., Loghman A., 2012, Electrothermomechanical nonlinear nonlocal vibration and instability of embedded microtube reinforced by BNNT, conveying fluid, Physica E: LowDimensional Systems and Nanostructures 45: 109121.##[16] Besseghier A., Tounsi A., Houari M. S. A., Benzair A., Boumia L., Heireche H., 2011, Thermal effect on wave propagation in doublewalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a polymer matrix using nonlocal elasticity, Physica E: LowDimensional Systems and Nanostructures 43: 13791386.##[17] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Roudbari M. A., 2014, Surface stress, initial stress and knudsendependent flow velocity effects on the electrothermo nonlocal wave propagation of SWBNNTs, Physica B: Condensed Matter 452: 159165.##[18] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Zarei M. S., Amir S., Khoddami Maraghi Z., 2013, Nonlinear nonlocal vibration of embedded DWCNT conveying fluid using shell model, Physica B: Condensed Matter 410: 188196.##[19] Pak C. H., Hong S.C. S., Yun Y. S. Y., 1991, On the vibrations of threedimensional angled piping systems conveying fluid, KSME Journal 5: 8692.##[20] Eringen A. C., 2002, Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories, Springer.##[21] Kaviani F., Mirdamadi H.R., 2012, Influence of knudsen number on fluid viscosity for analysis of divergence in fluid conveying nanotubes, Computational Materials Science 61: 270277.##[22] Khodami Maraghi Z.,Ghorbanpour Arani A., Kolahchi R., Amir S., Bagheri M. R., 2013, Nonlocal vibration and instability of embedded DWBNNT conveying viscose fluid, Composites Part B: Engineering 45: 423432.##[23] Gregory R.W., Paidoussis M. P., 1966, Unstable oscillation of tubular cantilevers conveying fluid.I.theoy, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 293: 512527.##[24] Zhen Y., Fang B., 2010, Thermalmechanical and nonlocal elastic vibration of singlewalled carbon nanotubes conveying fluid, Computational Materials Science 49: 276282.##]
1

Dynamics Analysis of the Steady and Transient States of a Nonlinear Piezoelectric Beam by a Finite Element Method
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523171.html
1
This paper presents a finite element formulation for the dynamics analysis of the steady and transient states of a nonlinear piezoelectric beam. A piezoelectric beam with damping is studied under harmonic excitation. A numerical method is used for this analysis. In the paper, the central difference formula of four order is used and compared with the central difference formula of two order in the time response of the structure. The NPBDA program is developed with Matlab software. In this program, the Newmark technique for dynamic analysis is used, the NewtonRaphson iterative and Simpson methods are used for the nonlinear solution. To verify the NPBDA results, the experimental results of Malatkar are used for the nonlinear vibration analysis of a beam without piezoelectric properties. Then, the piezoelectric effect on the frequency mode values and the time response are obtained. Afterwards, the modulation frequency in the nonlinear beam and the piezoelectric effect in this parameter are verified.
0

247
261


M
Jabbari
Mechanical Engineering Department , Isfahan University of Technology
Iran


M
Ghayour
Mechanical Engineering Department , Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
ghayour@cc.iut.ac.ir


H.R
Mirdamadi
Mechanical Engineering Department , Isfahan University of Technology
Iran
Piezoelectric beam
Nonlinear function
Dynamic Behavior
Transient
Steady state
Finite Element
[[1] Ha S.K., Keilers C., Chang F.K., 1992, Finite element analysis of composite structures containing distributed piezoceramic sensors and actuators, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 30:780772.##[2] Crawley E.F., Lazarus K.B., 1991, Induced strain actuation of isotropic and anisotropic plates, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 29: 951944.##[3] Rao S.S., Sunar M., 1993, analysis of distributed thermo piezoelectric sensors and actuators in advanced intelligent structures, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 31:12861280.##[4] Mindlin R.D., 1974, Equations of high frequency vibrations of thermo piezoelectric crystal plates, International Journal of Solids Structure 10:637625.##[5] Moetakef M.A., Lawrence K.L., Joshi S.P., Shiakolas P.S., 1995, ClosedForm expressions for higher order electro elastic tetrahedral elements, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 33:142136.##[6] Moetakef M.A., Joshi S.P., Lawrence K.L., 1996, Elastic wave generation by piezoceramic patches, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 34:21172110.##[7] Suleman A., Goncalves M.A., 1995, Optimization issues in application of piezoelectric actuators in panel flutter control, IDMECInstituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica 1096 Codex.##[8] Suleman A., Venkayya V.B., 1995, Flutter control of an adaptive laminated composite panel with piezoelectric layers, IDMECInstituto Superior Tecnico, Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica 1096 Codex.##[9] Zemcik R., Roifes R., Rose M., Tessmer J., 2007, High performance fournode shell element with piezoelectric coupling for the analysis of smart laminated structures, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 70:961934.##[10] Lazarus A., Thomas O., Deu J.F., 2012, Finite element reduced order models for nonlinear vibration of piezoelectric layered beams with applications to NEMS, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 49:5135.##[11] Ghayour M., Jabbari M., 2013, The effect of support and concentrated mass on the performance of piezoelectric beam actuator and frequencies, 3rd International Conference on Acoustic and Viberation ( ISAV2013).##[12] Kogl M., Bucalem M.L., 2005, Analysis of smart laminates using piezoelectric MITC plate and shell elements, Computers and Structures 83:11631153.##[13] Piefort V., Preumont A., 2000, Finite element modeling of smart piezoelectric shell structures, 5th National Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics.##[14] Delgado I., 2007, Nonlinear vibration of a cantilever beam, M.S in Mechanical Engineering.##[15] Malatkar P., 2003, Nonlinear vibrations of cantilever beams and plates, Ph.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.##[16] Borse G.J., 1997, Numerical Methods with Matlab, PWSKent, Boston.##[17] Sebald G., Kuwano H., Guyomar D., 2011, Experimental duffing oscillator for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting, Smart Materials and Structures 20: 110.##[18] Erturk A., Inman D.J., 2011, Broadband piezoelectric power generation on highenergy orbits of the bistable Duffing oscillator with electromechanical coupling, Journal of Sound and Vibration 330: 23392353.##[19] Friswell1 M.I., Faruque S.A., Bilgen O., Adhikari S., Lees A.W., Litak G., 2012, Nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting from a vertical cantilever beam with tip mass, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures 23(13): 15051521.##[20] Bendigeri C., Tomar R., Basavaraju S., Arasukumar K., 2011, Detailed formulation and programming method for piezoelectric finite element, International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology 7(1): 121.##[21] Cook R.D., 1995, Finite Element Analysis for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York.##[22] Clough R.W., Penzien J., 1975, Dynamics of Structures, John Wiley and Sons, NewYork.##]
1

The Effect of Elastic Foundations on the Buckling Behavior of Functionally Graded Carbon NanotubeReinforced Composite Plates in Thermal Environments Using a Meshfree Method
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523180.html
1
The buckling behavior of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite (FGCNTRC) plates resting on WinklerPasternak elastic foundations under inplane loads for various temperatures is investigated using elementfree Galerkin (EFG) method based on firstorder shear deformation theory (FSDT). The modified shear correction factor is used based on energy equivalence principle. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are embedded in polymer matrix and distributed in four types of arrangements. The temperaturedependent material properties of an FGCNTRC plate are assumed to be graded along the thickness direction of the plate and estimated through a micromechanical model based on the extended rule of mixture. Full transformation approach is employed to enforce essential boundary conditions. The modified shear correction factor is utilized based on energy equivalence principle involving the actual nonuniform shear stress distribution through the thickness of the FGCNTRC plate. The accuracy and convergency of the EFG method is established by comparing the obtained results with available literature. Moreover, the effects of elastic foundation parameters are investigated for various boundary conditions, temperatures, plate widthtothickness and aspect ratios, and CNT distributions and volume fractions. Detailed parametric studies demonstrate that the elastic foundation parameters, CNT distributions along the thickness direction of the plate and the temperature change have noticeable effects on buckling behavior of carbon nanotubereinforced composite (CNTRC) plates.
0

262
279


Sh
Shams
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran


B
Soltani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
bsoltani@kashanu.ac.ir


M
Memar Ardestani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
Buckling
Composite plate
Carbon nanotubes
Elastic foundation
Meshfree method
Firstorder shear deformation theory
[[1] Alibeigloo A., Liew K. M., 2013, Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plate using theory of elasticity, Composite Structures 106: 873881.##[2] Belytschko T., Lu Y. Y., Gu L., 1994, Elementfree Galerkin methods, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 37: 229256.##[3] Bonnet P., Sireude D., Garnier B., Chauvet O., 2007, Thermal properties and percolation in carbon nanotube–polymer composites, Journal of Applied Physics 91: 20192030.##[4] Chen J., Chunhui P., Wu C., Liu W., 1996, Reproducing kernel particle method for large deformation of nonlinear structures, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 139:195227.##[5] Esawi A. M., Farag M. M., 2007, Carbon nanotube reinforced composites: potential and current challenges, Materials & Design 28: 23942401.##[6] Fidelus J. D., Wiesel E., Gojny F. H., Schulte K., Wagner H. D., 2005, Thermomechanical properties of randomly oriented carbon/epoxy nanocomposites, Composites Part A 36:15551561.##[7] Han J. B., Liew K. M., 1997, Numerical differential quadrature method for Reissner/Mindlin plates on twoparameter foundations, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 39(9): 977989.##[8] Han Y., Elliott J., 2007, Molecular dynamics simulations of the elastic properties of polymer/carbon nanotube composites, Computational Materials Science 39: 319323.##[9] Hu N., Fukunaga H., Lu C., Kameyama M., Yan B., 2005, Prediction of elastic properties of carbon nanotube reinforced composites, Proceeding Royal Society of London A 461: 16851710.##[10] Huang Z. Y., Lü C. F., Chen W. Q., 2008, Benchmark solutions for functionally graded thick plates resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations, Composite Structures 85(2): 95104.##[11] Valter B., Ram M.K., Nicolini C., 2002, Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and poly (oanisidine) nanocomposite material: Fabrication and characterization of its LangmuirSchaefer films, Langmuir 18(5):15351541.##[12] Jafari Mehrabadi S., Sobhani Aragh B., Khoshkhahesh V., Taherpour A., 2012, Mechanical buckling of nanocomposite rectangular plate reinforced by aligned and straight singlewalled carbon nanotubes, Composites Part BEngineering 43(4): 20312040.##[13] Malekzadeh P., Shojaee M., 2013, Buckling analysis of quadrilateral laminated plates with carbon nanotubes reinforced composite layers, ThinWalled Structures 71: 108118.##[14] Shen H. S., 2009, Nonlinear bending of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates in thermal environments, Composite Structures 91(1): 919.##[15] Zhu P., Lei Z. X., Liew K. M., 2012, Static and free vibration analyses of carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates using finite element method with first order shear deformation plate theory, Composite Structures 94(4): 14501460.##[16] Sobhani Aragh B., Nasrollah Barati A.H., Hedayati H., 2012, Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach for vibrational behavior of continuously graded carbon nanotubereinforced cylindrical panels, Composites Part BEngineering 43(4): 19431954.##[17] Alibeigloo A., Liew K.M., 2013, Thermoelastic analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plate using theory of elasticity, Composite Structures 106: 873881.##[18] MoradiDastjerdi R., Foroutan M., Pourasghar A., SotoudehBahreini R., 2013, Static analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite cylinders by a meshfree method, Journal of Reinforced Plastic and Composites 32(9): 593601.##[19] Lei Z. X., Liew K. M., Yu J. L., 2013, Large deflection analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates by the elementfree kpRitz method, Computational Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering 256: 189199.##[20] Lei X. Z., Liew K. M., Yu J. L., 2013, Buckling analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates using the elementfree kpRitz method, Composite Structures 98: 160168.##[21] Shen H. S., Xiang Y., 2014, Nonlinear vibration of nanotubereinforced composite cylindrical panels resting on elastic foundations in thermal environments, Composite Structures 111: 291300.##[22] Lam K. Y., Wang C. M., He X. Q., 2000, Canonical exact solutions for Levyplates on twoparameter foundation using Green's functions, Engineering Structures 22: 364378.##[23] Han J.B., Liew K.M., 1997, Numerical differential quadrature method for Reissner/Mindlin plates on twoparameter foundations, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 39(9): 977989.##[24] Winkler E., 1867, Die Lehre von der Elasticitaet und Festigkeit, Prag, Dominicus.##[25] Pasternak P. L., 1954, On a new method of analysis of an elastic foundation by means of two foundation constants , Gosudarstvennoe Izdatelstro Liberaturi po Stroitelstvui Arkhitekture, Moscow.##[26] Huang Z.Y., Lü C.F., Chen W.Q., 2008, Benchmark solutions for functionally graded thick plates resting on Winkler–Pasternak elastic foundations, Composite Structures 85(2): 95104.##[27] Zhang D. G., 2013, Nonlinear bending analysis of FGM rectangular plates with various supported boundaries resting on twoparameter elastic foundations, Archive of Applied Mechanics 84(1): 120.##[28] Shen S. H., Wang H., 2014, Nonlinear vibration of shear deformable FGM cylindrical panels resting on elastic foundations in thermal environments, Composites Part B: Engineering 60: 167177.##[29] Singha M. K., Prakash T., Ganapathi M., 2011, Finite element analysis of functionally graded plates under transverse load, Finite Element in Analysis and Design 47(4): 453460.##[30] Belytschko T., Lu Y.Y., Gu L., 1994, Elementfree Galerkin methods, International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering 37: 229256.##[31] Zhu T., Atluri N.,1998, A modified collocation method and a penalty function for enforcing the essential boundary conditions in the element free Galerkin method, Computational Mechanics 21: 211222.##[32] Chen J.S., Chunhui P., Wu C.T., Liu W.K., 1996, Reproducing kernel particle method for large deformation of nonlinear structures, Computational Methods Applied Mechanics and Engineering 139: 195227.##[33] Memar Ardestani M., Soltani B., Shams Sh., 2014, Analysis of functionally graded stiffened plates based on FSDT utilizing reproducing kernel particle method, Composite Structures 112: 231240.##[34] Malekzadeh P., Golbahar Haghighi M. R., Alibeygi Beni A., 2011, Buckling analysis of functionally graded arbitrary straightsided quadrilateral plates on elastic foundations, Meccanica 47(2): 321333.##[35] Shen H. S., Zhang C. L. , 2010, Thermal buckling and postbuckling behavior of functionally graded carbon nanotubereinforced composite plates, Materials & Design 3(7): 34033411.##]
1

Bending Analysis of Composite Sandwich Plates with Laminated Face Sheets: New Finite Element Formulation
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523182.html
1
The bending behavior of composites sandwich plates with multilayered laminated face sheets has been investigated, using a new fournodded rectangular finite element formulation based on a layerwise theory. Both, first order and higherorder shear deformation; theories are used in order to model the face sheets and the core, respectively. Unlike any other layerwise theory, the number of degrees of freedom in this present model is independent of the number of layers. The compatibility conditions as well as the displacement continuity at the interface ‘face sheets–core’ are satisfied. In the proposed model, the three translation components are common for the all sandwich layers, and are located at the midplane of the sandwich plate. The obtained results show that the developed model is able to give accurate transverse shear stresses directly from the constitutive equations. Moreover, a parametric study was also conducted to investigate the effect of certain characteristic parameters (core thickness to total thickness ratio, sidetothickness ratio, boundary conditions, plate aspect ratio, coretoface sheet anisotropy ratio, core shear modulus to the flexural modulus ratio and degree of orthotropy of the face sheet) on the transverse displacement variation. The numerical results obtained by our model are compared favorably with those obtained via analytical solution and numerical/experimental, results obtained by other models. The results obtained from this investigation will be useful for a more comprehensive understanding of the behavior of sandwich laminates.
0

280
299


M.O
Belarbi
Laboratoire de Génie Energétique et Matériaux, LGEM. Université de Biskra, B.P. 145, R.P. 07000
Algeria
mo.belarbi@univbiskra.dz


A
Tati
Laboratoire de Génie Energétique et Matériaux, LGEM. Université de Biskra, B.P. 145, R.P. 07000
Algeria
Layerwise
Finite Element
Sandwich plates
Bending
[[1] Khandelwal R., Chakrabarti A., Bhargava P., 2013, An efficient FE model based on combined theory for the analysis of soft core sandwich plate, Computational Mechanics 51(5): 673697.##[2] Kant T., Swaminathan K., 2000, Estimation of transverse/interlaminar stresses in laminated composites – a selective review and survey of current developments, Composite Structures 49(1): 6575.##[3] Kirchhoff G., 1850, Über das gleichgewicht und die bewegung einer elastischen scheibe, Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik 40: 5188.##[4] Librescu L., 1975, Elastostatics and Kinetics of Anisotropic and Heterogeneous ShellType Structures, Noordhoff, Leyden, Netherlands.##[5] Ounis H., Tati A., Benchabane A., 2014, Thermal buckling behavior of laminated composite plates: a finiteelement study, Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering 9(1): 4149.##[6] Stavsky Y., 1965, On the theory of symmetrically heterogeneous plates having the same thickness variation of the elastic moduli, Topics in Applied Mechanics 105166.##[7] Reissner E., 1975, On transverse bending of plates, including the effect of transverse shear deformation, International Journal of Solids and Structures 11(5): 569573.##[8] Whitney J., Pagano N., 1970, Shear deformation in heterogeneous anisotropic plates, Journal of Applied Mechanics 37 (4) : 10311036.##[9] Mindlin R., 1951, Influence of rotary inertia and shear on flexural motions of isotropic, elastic plates, Journal of Applied Mechanics 18 :3138.##[10] Yang P.C., Norris C.H., Stavsky Y., 1966, Elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous plates, International Journal of Solids and Structures 2(4): 665684.##[11] Lo K., Christensen R., Wu E., 1977, A highorder theory of plate deformationpart 2: laminated plates, Journal of Applied Mechanics 44(4) : 669676.##[12] Manjunatha B., Kant T., 1993, On evaluation of transverse stresses in layered symmetric composite and sandwich laminates under flexure, Engineering Computations 10(6): 499518.##[13] Nayak A., Moy S.J., Shenoi R., 2003, Quadrilateral finite elements for multilayer sandwich plates, The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 38(5): 377392.##[14] Reddy J.N., 1984, A simple higherorder theory for laminated composite plates, Journal of Applied Mechanics 51(4): 745752.##[15] RezaieePajand M., Shahabian F., Tavakoli F., 2012, A new higherorder triangular plate bending element for the analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 43(2): 253271.##[16] Tu T.M., Thach L.N., Quoc T.H., 2010, Finite element modeling for bending and vibration analysis of laminated and sandwich composite plates based on higherorder theory, Computational Materials Science 49(4) S390S394.##[17] Chakrabarti A., Sheikh A.H., 2005, Analysis of laminated sandwich plates based on interlaminar shear stress continuous plate theory, Journal of Engineering Mechanics 131(4): 377384.##[18] Pandit M.K., Sheikh A.H., Singh B.N., 2008, An improved higher order zigzag theory for the static analysis of laminated sandwich plate with soft core, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 44(9): 602610.##[19] Carrera E., 2003, Historical review of zigzag theories for multilayered plates and shells, Applied Mechanics Reviews 56: 287308.##[20] Cho M., Parmerter R., 1993, Efficient higher order composite plate theory for general lamination configurations, AIAA Journal 31(7): 12991306.##[21] Di Sciuva M., 1986, Bending vibration and buckling of simply supported thick multilayered orthotropic plates: an evaluation of a new displacement model, Journal of Sound and Vibration 105(3): 425442.##[22] Chalak H.D., 2012 , An improved C0 FE model for the analysis of laminated sandwich plate with soft core, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 56: 2031.##[23] Kapuria S., Nath J., 2013, On the accuracy of recent global–local theories for bending and vibration of laminated plates, Composite Structures 95: 163172.##[24] Li X., Liu D., 1997, Generalized laminate theories based on double superposition hypothesis, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 40(7) : 11971212.##[25] Wu Z., Chen R., Chen W., 2005, Refined laminated composite plate element based on global–local higherorder shear deformation theory, Composite Structures 70(2) : 135152.##[26] Zhen W., Wanji C., 2010, A C0type higherorder theory for bending analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates, Composite Structures 92(3): 653661.##[27] Shariyat M., 2010, A generalized global–local highorder theory for bending and vibration analyses of sandwich plates subjected to thermomechanical loads, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52(3): 495514.##[28] Lee L. Fan Y., 1996, Bending and vibration analysis of composite sandwich plates, Computers and Structures 60(1): 103112.##[29] Linke M., Wohlers W., Reimerdes H.G., 2007, Finite element for the static and stability analysis of sandwich plates, Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials 9(2): 123142.##[30] Mantari J., Oktem A., Guedes Soares C., 2012, A new trigonometric layerwise shear deformation theory for the finite element analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates, Computers and Structures 94: 4553.##[31] Oskooei S., Hansen J., 2000, Higherorder finite element for sandwich plates, AIAA Journal 38(3): 525533.##[32] Plagianakos T.S., Saravanos D.A., 2009, Higherorder layerwise laminate theory for the prediction of interlaminar shear stresses in thick composite and sandwich composite plates, Composite Structures 87(1): 2335.##[33] Ramesh S.S., 2009, A higherorder plate element for accurate prediction of interlaminar stresses in laminated composite plates, Composite Structures 91(3): 337357.##[34] Reddy J.N., 1987, A generalization of twodimensional theories of laminated composite plates, Communications in Applied Numerical Methods 3(3): 173180.##[35] Wu C. P., Lin C. C., 1993, Analysis of sandwich plates using a mixed finite element, Composite Structures 25(1): 397405.##[36] Maturi D.A., 2014, Analysis of sandwich plates with a new layerwise formulation, Composites Part B: Engineering 56: 484489.##[37] PhungVan P., 2014, Static and free vibration analyses of composite and sandwich plates by an edgebased smoothed discrete shear gap method (ESDSG3) using triangular elements based on layerwise theory, Composites Part B: Engineering 60: 227238.##[38] Reddy J.N., 1993, An evaluation of equivalentsinglelayer and layerwise theories of composite laminates, Composite Structures 25(14): 2135.##[39] Carrera E., 2002, Theories and finite elements for multilayered, anisotropic, composite plates and shells, Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering 9(2): 87140.##[40] Ha K., 1990, Finite element analysis of sandwich plates: an overview, Computers and Structures 37(4): 397403.##[41] Khandan R., 2012, The development of laminated composite plate theories: a review, Journal of Materials Science 47 (16): 59015910.##[42] Noor A.K., Burton W.S., Bert C.W., 1996, Computational models for sandwich panels and shells, Applied Mechanics Reviews 49: 155199.##[43] Zhang Y., Yang C., 2009, Recent developments in finite element analysis for laminated composite plates, Composite Structures 88(1): 147157.##[44] Ramtekkar G., Desai Y., Shah A., 2002, Mixed finiteelement model for thick composite laminated plates, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 9(2): 133156.##[45] Ramtekkar G., Desai Y., Shah A., 2003, Application of a threedimensional mixed finite element model to the flexure of sandwich plate, Computers and Structures 81(22): 21832198.##[46] Pagano N., 1970, Exact solutions for rectangular bidirectional composites and sandwich plates, Journal of Composite Materials 4(1): 2034.##[47] Kanematsu H.H., Hirano Y., Iyama H., 1988, Bending and vibration of CFRPfaced rectangular sandwich plates, Composite Structures 10(2): 145163.##[48] Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L., 2000, The Finite Element Method: Solid Mechanics, Butterworthheinemann.##[49] Singh S.K., 2011, An efficient C0 FE model for the analysis of composites and sandwich laminates with general layup, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 8(2): 197212.##[50] Meunier M., Shenoi R., 1999, Free vibration analysis of composite sandwich plates, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 213(7): 715727.##]
1

Smart Vibration Control of Magnetostrictive NanoPlate Using Nonlocal Continuum Theory
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523183.html
1
In this research, a control feedback system is used to study the free vibration response of rectangular plate made of magnetostrictive material (MsM) for the first time. A new trigonometric higher order shear deformation plate theory are utilized and the results of them are compared with two theories in order to clarify their accuracy and errors. Pasternak foundation is selected to modelling of elastic medium due to considering both normal and shears modulus. Also inplane forces are uniformly applied on magnetostrictive nanoplate (MsNP) in x and y directions. Nonlocal motion equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by differential quadrature method (DQM) considering different boundary conditions. Results indicate the effect of various parameters such as aspect ratio, thickness ratio, elastic medium, compression and tension loads and small scale effect on vibration behaviour of MsNP especially the controller effect of velocity feedback gain to minimizing the frequency. These finding can be used to active noise and vibration cancellation systems in micro and nano smart structures.
0

300
314


A
Ghorbanpour Arani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of KashanInstitute of Nanoscience& Nanotechnology, University of Kashan
Iran
aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir


Z
Khoddami Maraghi
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran


H
Khani Arani
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
Free vibration
Magnetostrictive rectangular nanoplate
A new trigonometric/tangential shear deformation theory
Control feedback system
[[1] Liu J.P., Fullerton E., Gutfleisch O., Sellmyer D.J., 2009, Nanoscale Magnetic Materials and Applications, Springer Publisher, New York.##[2] Hong C.C., 2013, Application of a magnetostrictive actuator, Materials and Design 46: 617621.##[3] Aboudi J., Zheng X., Jin K., 2014, Micromechanics of magnetostrictive composites, International Journal of Engineering Science 81: 8299.##[4] Radic N., Jeremic D., Trifkovic S., Milutinovic M., 2014, Buckling analysis of doubleorthotropic nanoplates embedded in Pasternak elastic medium using nonlocal elasticity theory, Composites Part B 61: 162171.##[5] Li Y.S., Cai Z.Y., Shi S.Y., 2014, Buckling and free vibration of magnetoelectroelastic nanoplate based on nonlocal theory, Composite Structures 111: 522529.##[6] Kiani K., 2014, Free vibration of conducting nanoplates exposed to unidirectional inplane magnetic fields using nonlocal shear deformable plate theories, Physica E 57: 179192.##[7] Jia Z.Y., Liu H.F., Wang F.J., Liu W., Ge C.Y., 2011, A novel magnetostrictive static force sensor based on the giant magnetostrictive material, Measurement 44: 8895.##[8] Aboudi J., Zheng X., Jin K., 2014, Micromechanics of magnetostrictive composites, International Journal of Engineering Science 81: 8299.##[9] Pradhan S.C., Kumar A., 2010, Vibration analysis of orthotropic graphene sheets embedded in Pasternak elastic medium using nonlocal elasticity theory and differential quadrature method, Computational Materials Science 50: 239245.##[10] Pradhan S.C., Phadikar J.K., 2009, Nonlocal elasticity theory for vibration of nanoplates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 325: 206223.##[11] Malekzadeh P., Shojaee M., 2013, Free vibration of nanoplates based on a nonlocal twovariable refined plate theory, Composite Structures 95: 443452.##[12] Pradhan S.C., 2009, Buckling of single layer graphene sheet based on nonlocal elasticity and higher order shear deformation theory, Physics Letters A 373: 41824188.##[13] Zenkour A.M., Sobhy M., 2013, Nonlocal elasticity theory for thermal buckling of nanoplates lying on Winkler–Pasternak elastic substrate medium, Physica E 53: 251259.##[14] Mantari J.L., Oktem A.S., Soares C.G., 2012, A new trigonometric layerwise shear deformation theory for the finite element analysis of laminated composite and sandwich plates, Computers and Structures 9495: 4553.##[15] Mantari J.L., Bonilla E.M., Soares C.G., 2014, A new tangentialexponential higher order shear deformation theory for advanced composite plates, Composites Part B 60: 319328.##[16] Mantari J.L., Oktem A.S. Soares C.G., 2012, A new trigonometric shear deformation theory for isotropic, laminated composite and sandwich plates, International Journal of Solids and Structures 49: 4353.##[17] Mantari J.L., Soares C.G., 2013, A novel higherorder shear deformation theory with stretching effect for functionally graded plates, Composites Part B 45: 268281.##[18] Hong C.C., 2009, Transient responses of magnetostrictive plates without shear effects, Journal of Sound and Vibration 47: 355362.##[19] Hong C.C., 2010, Transient responses of magnetostrictive plates by using the GDQ method, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 29: 10151021.##[20] Timoshenko S.P., 1922, On the transverse vibrations of bars of uniform crosssection, Philosophical Magazine A 43: 125131.##[21] Krishna M., Anjanappa M., Wu Y.F., 1997, The use of magnetostrictive particle actuators for vibration attenuation of flexible beams, Journal of Sound and Vibration 206: 133149.##[22] Eringen A.C., 2002, Nonlocal Continuum Field Theories, New York, Springer.##[23] Alibeygi Beni A., Malekzadeh P., 2012, Nonlocal free vibration of orthotropic nonprismatic skew nanoplates, Composite Structures 94: 32153222.##[24] Rahim Nami M., Janghorban M., 2013, Static analysis of rectangular nanoplates using trigonometric shear deformation theory based on nonlocal elasticity theory, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnolgy 4: 968973.##[25] Reddy J.N., 2004, Energy Principles and Variational Methods in Applied Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Texas.##[26] Malekzadeh K., Khalili S.M.R., Abbaspour P., 2010, Vibration of nonideal simply supported laminated plate on an elastic foundation subjected to inplane stresses, Composite Structures 92: 14781484.##[27] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Vossough H., Kolahchi R., Mosallaie Barzoki A.A., 2012, Electrothermo nonlocal nonlinear vibration in an embedded polymeric piezoelectric micro plate reinforced by DWBNNTs using DQM, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 26: 30473057.##[28] Shu C., 2000, Differential Quadrature and its Application in Engineering, Springer publishers, Singapore.##]
1

Analysis of the Fracture of a Turbine Blade
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523184.html
1
The cause of crack initiation turbine blade had initially cracked by a fatigue mechanism over a period of time and then fractured by the overload at the last moment. Experimental procedure consists of macroscopic inspection, material veriﬁcation, microscopic examination, and metallographic analysis and finally FE. And for these procedures, some specimens were prepared from a fractured blade. Using ICP and energy dispersive Xray ﬂuorescence, the chemical composition of the blade was carefully analyzed. The segregated area of Ti and Mo, caused generally by inappropriate manufacturing process, is found by the microstructure and EDX analysis of the blade. The fracture blade which installed on the third stage rotor of the turbojet was fractured at about 6 cm distance from the hub of proposed blade. The nonlinear finite element method (FEM) was utilized in order to define the stress state of the disc or blade segment under operating conditions. High stress zones were found at the region of the lower firtree slot, where the failure occurred. A computation were also achieved with excessive rotational speed. The aim of this study is devoted to the mechanisms of damage of the turbine disc, and furthermore the critical high stress areas.
0

315
325


A.R
Shourangiz Haghighi
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jahrom University
Iran


S
Rahmanian
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jahrom University
Iran


A
Shamsabadi
College of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University
Iran
alishamsabadi@ymail.com


A
zare
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University
Iran


I
Zare
College of Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University
Iran
Fatigue
Creep
Turbine blade
FEA
Fracture
Xray ﬂuorescence
[[1] Lucjan W., 2006, Failure analysis of turbine disc of an aero engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 13: 917.##[2] Chan S.K., Tuba I.S., 1971, A finite element method for contact problems of solid bodies–Part II: Applications to turbine blade fastenings, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 13: 627639.##[3] Masataka M., 1992, Root and groove contact analysis for steam turbine blades, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers 35:508514.##[4] Meguid S.A., Kanth P.S., Czekanski A., 2000, Finite element analysis of firtree region in turbine disc, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 35:305317.##[5] Papanikos P., Meguid S.A., Stjepanovic Z., 1998, Threedimensional nonlinear finite element analysis of dovetail joints in aeroengine discs, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 29:173186.##[6] Zboinski G.,1995, Physical and geometrical nonlinearities in contact problems of elastic turbine blade attachments, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 209: 273286.##[7] McEvily A., 2004, Failures in inspection procedures: case studies, Engineering Failure Analysis 11:167176.##[8] Hou J., Wicks B.J., Antoniou R.A., 2002, An investigations of fatigue failures of turbine blades in a gas turbine engine by mechanical analysis, Engineering Failure Analysis 9:201211.##[9] Bhaumik S.K., 2002, Failure of turbine rotor blisk of an aircraft engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 287301.##[10] Park M., Hwang Y., Choi Y., Kim T., 2002, Analysis of a J69T25 engine turbine blade fracture, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 593601.##[11] Treager I., 1995, Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Technology, McGraw Hill.##[12] KyoSoo S., SeonGab K., Daehan J., YoungHa H., 2007, Analysis of the fracture of a turbine blade on a turbojet engine, Engineering Failure Analysis 14 : 877883.##[13] Backman D. G., Mourer D. P., Bain K. R., Walston W. S., 2003, AIM A new methodology for developing disk materials, Advanced Materials and Processes for Gas Turbines .##[14] Murakumo T., Kobayashi T., Koizumi Y., Harada H., 2004, Creep behavior of nibase singlecrystal superalloys withvarious gamma volume fraction, Acta Materialia 52 (12): 37373744.##[15] Karunarante M. S. A., Reed R. C., 2003, Interdiffusion of platinum group metals in nickel at elevated temperatures, Acta Materialia 51(10): 29052914.##[16] Reed R. C., Karunarantne M. S. A., 2000, Interdiffusion in the face centered cubic phase of NiRe, NiTa and NiW systems between 900◦C and 1300◦C, Materials Science and Engineering A 281(1–2): 229233.##[17] WalstonW. S., Cetel A., MacKay R., O’Hara K., Duhl D., Dreshfield R., 2004, Joint development of a fourth generation single crystal superalloys, SuperAlloys 2004:1524.##[18] Tanaka R., 2008, Research and development of ultrahigh temperature materials in japan, Materials at High Temperatures 26(4): 457464.##[19] Pollock T. M., Argon A. S., 1992, Creep resistance of CMSX3 nickel base superalloys single crystals, Acta Metallurgia et Materialia 40(6):130.##[20] McLean M., Dyson B. F., 2010, Modeling the effects of damage and microstructural evolution on the creep behavior of engineering alloys, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 131:273278.##[21] Pollock T. M., Field R. D., 2012, Dislocations and high temperature plastic deformation of superalloys single crystals, Dislocations in Solids 2012:549618.##[22] ASM Handbook, ASM International 2: 951.##[23] Meetham G.W.,1996, Contribution of materials to the development of the gas turbine engine, Metall Mater Technology 1996: 589602.##[24] Pollock T. M., Field R. D., 2002, Dislocations and high temperature plastic deformation of superalloy single crystals, Dislocations in Solids 11: 549618.##[25] Rae C.M.F., Cox D.C., Rist M.A., Reed R.C., Matan N.C., 2000, On the primary creep of CMSX4 superalloy single crystals, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 31(9): 22192228.##[26] Muller L., Glatzel U., FellerKniepmeier M., 1992, Modelling thermal misﬁt stresses in nickelbase superalloys containing high volume fraction of gamma’ phase, Acta Metallurgia ET Materialia 40: 13211327.##[27] Schneider M. C., Gu J. P., Beckermann C., Boettinger W. J., Kattner U. R., 1997, Modeling of micro and macrosegregation and freckle formation in single crystal nickelbase superalloys during directional solidiﬁcation, Metallurgical Transactions A 28(7):15171531.##[28] Auburtin P., Cockcroft S. L., Mitchell A., 1996, Freckle formation in superalloys, Superalloys 1996: 443450.##[29] Miner R.V., Gayada J., Maier R.D., 1982, Fatigue and creep fatigue deformation of several nickelbase superalloys at 650◦C, Metallurgical Transactions A 13(10):17551765.##[30] McLean M., Dyson B. F., 2000, Modeling the effects of damage and microstructural evolution on the creep behavior of engineering alloys, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 131: 273278.##[31] Carter Tim J., 2005, Common failures in gas turbine blade, Engineering Failure Analysis 12: 237247.##[32] ASM Handbook, ASM International 28:50.##[33] Mercer C., Shademn S., Soboyejo W.O.,2003, An investigation of the micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth in structural gas turbine engine alloy, Journal of Materials Science 38:291305.##[34] Luo J., Bowen P., 2004, Small and long fatigue crack growth behavior of a PM Nibased superalloy, International Journal of Fatigue 26:113124.##[35] Jiang L., Brooks C.R., Liaw P.K., Klarstrom D.L., Rawn C.J., Muenchen B., 2001, Phenomenological aspects of the highcycle fatigue of ULTIMET alloy, Materials Science and Engineering 316:6679.##[36] Neal D.F., Blenkinsop P.A., 1976, Internal fatigue origins in a–b titanium alloys, Acta Metallurgica 24: 5963.##[37] BoydLee A.D., 1999, Fatigue crack growth resistant microstructures in polycrystalline Nibase superalloys for aeroengines, International Journal of Fatigue 21:393405.##[38] MSCPatran User’s Manual, 2009, MSC Corporation, Los Angeles.##[39] Park M., Hwang Y., Choi Y., Kim T., 2002, Analysis of a J69T25 engine turbine blade fracture, Engineering Failure Analysis 9: 593601.##[40] Pollock T.M., Tin S., 2006, Nickelbased superalloys for advanced turbine engines: chemistry, microstructure, and properties , Journal of Propulsion and Power 22(2): 361374.##[41] Khurana S., Navte J., Singh H., 2012, Effect of cavitation on hydraulic turbines – a review, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology 2: 172 177.##[42] Momcilvic D., Odanovic Z., Mitrovic R., Atanasovska I., Vuherer T., 2012, Failure analysis of hydraulic turbine shaft, Engineering Failure Analysis 29: 5466.##[43] Momcilovic D., Motrovic R., Antanasovska I., Vuherer T., 2012, Methodology of determination the influence of corrosion pit on the decrease of hydro turbine shaft fatigue failure, Machine Design 4(4): 231  236.##[44] Neopane H.P., 2010, Sediment Erosion in Hydro Turbines, Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology, Fluid Engineering, Norway.##[45] Belash I., 2010, Causes of the failure of the no. 2 hydraulic generating set at the SayanoShushenskaya HPP: criticality of reliability enhancement for waterpower equipment, Power Technology and Engineering 44(3):165170.##[46] Ferreño D., Álvarez J.A., Ruiz E., Méndez D., Rodríguez L., Hernández D., 2011, Failure analysis of a Pelton turbine manufactured in soft martensitic stainless steel casting, Engineering Failure Analysis 18(1):256270.##[47] Egusquiza E., Valero C., Estévez A., Guardo A., Coussirat M., 2011, Failures due to ingested bodies in hydraulic turbines, Engineering Failure Analysis 18(1): 464473.##[48] Luo Y., Wang Z., Zeng J., Lin J., 2010, Fatigue of piston rod caused by unsteady, unbalanced, unsynchronized blade torques in a Kaplan turbine, Engineering Failure Analysis 17(1):192199.##]
1

Application of the GTN Model in Ductile Fracture Prediction of 7075T651 Aluminum Alloy
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523185.html
1
In this paper the capability of GursonTvergaardNeedleman (GTN) model in the prediction of ductile damage in 7075T651 aluminum alloy is investigated. For this purpose, three types of specimens were tested: Standard tensile bars, Round notched bar (RNB) specimens and compact tension (C(T)) specimens. Standard tensile bar tests were used to obtain the mechanical properties of the material and to calibrate the independent parameters of GTN model. RNB and C(T) specimen test results were used for validation of the calibrated parameters. Finite element analyses were carried out using ABAQUS commercial software for two purposes; calibration of the GTN model parameters and validation of the model predictions. The comparison between the finite element analyses and the test results suggested that the GTN model is capable of damage prediction in notched specimens, but not a good in cracked specimens. Finally, To show the applicability of the model in industrylevel problems, the model is used for damage predictions of internal pressure vessels made of 7075t651 aluminum alloy.
0

326
333


S.F
Hosseini
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Iran


S
HadidiMoud
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
Iran
hadidi@um.ac.ir
Ductile fracture
GTN model
Calibrated parameters
7075T651 aluminum alloy
[[1] Jordon J. B., 2009, Damage characterization and modeling of a 7075T651 aluminum plate, Materials Science and Engineering 527: 169178.##[2] Fabregue D., Pardoen T., 2008, A constitutive model for elastoplastic solids and secondary voids, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 56: 719741.##[3] Tvergaard V., Needlemann A., 1984, Analysis of the cupcone fracture in a round tensile bar, Acta Metallurgica 32: 5769.##[4] ChangKyun O., 2007, A phenomenological model of ductile fracture for API X65 steel, Internatinal Journal of Mechanical Science 49: 13991412.##[5] Acharyya S., Dhar S., 1999, A complete GTN model for prediction of ductile failure of pipe, Journal of Materials Science 43: 18971909.##[6] Chiluverin S., 2007, Computational Modeling of Crack Initiation in Crossroll Piercing, MSc Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.##[7] Benseddiq N., Imad A., 2008, A ductile fracture analysis using a local damage model, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 85: 219227.##[8] Bernauer G., Brocks W., Schmitt W., 1999, Modifications of the beremin model for cleavage fracture in the transition region of a ferritic steel, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 64: 305325.##[9] Nielsen K. L., 2008, Ductile damage development in friction stir welded aluminum (AA2024) joints, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 75: 27952811.##[10] Abendorth M., Kuna M., 2006, Identification of ductile damage and fracture parameters from the small punch test using neural networks, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 73: 710725.##[11] Maout N. L., Thuillier S., Manach P. Y., 2009, Aluminum alloy damage evolution for different strain paths – application to hemming process, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 76: 12021214.##[12] He M., Li F., Wang Z., 2011, Forming limit stress diagram prediction of aluminum alloy 5052 based on GTN model parameters determined by in situ tensile test, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics 24: 378386.##[13] Li X., Song N., Guo G., 2012, Experimental measurement and theoretical prediction of forming limit curve for aluminum alloy 2B06, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China 22: 335342.##[14] Teng B., Wang W., Liu Y., Yuan S., 2014, Bursting prediction of hydroforming aluminum alloy tube based on GursonTvergaardNeedleman damage model, Procedia Engineering 81: 2211 2216.##[15] Gurson A. L., 1977, Continuum theory of ductile rupture by void nucleation and growth: part I – yield criteria and flow rules for porous ductile media, Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 99(1): 215.##[16] Tvergaard V., 1982, On localization in ductile materials containing spherical voids, International Journal of Fracture 18: 3752.##[17] Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 1997, Standard test methods for tension testing of wrought and cast aluminum and magnesiumalloy products, ASTM B55710.##[18] Annual Book of ASTM Standard, 1997, Standard test method for plane strain fracture toughness of metallic materials , ASTM E39990.##[19] Tajally M., Huda Z., Masjuki H. H., 2010, A comparative analysis of tensile and impacttoughness behavior of coldworked and annealed 7075 aluminum alloy, International Journal of Impact Engineering 37: 425432.##]
1

SemiAnalytical Solution for Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Laminated Curved Panels with PowerLaw Distribution FG Layers and Finite Length Via TwoDimensional GDQ Method
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523186.html
1
This paper deals with free vibration analysis of thick Laminated curved panels with finite length, based on the threedimensional elasticity theory. Because of using twodimensional generalized differential quadrature method, the present approach makes possible vibration analysis of cylindrical panels with two opposite axial edges simply supported and arbitrary boundary conditions including Free, Simply supported and Clamped at the curved edges. The material properties vary continuously through the layers thickness according to a threeparameter powerlow distribution. It is assumed that the inner surfaces of the FG sheets are metal rich while the outer surfaces of the layers can be metal rich, ceramic rich or made of a mixture of two constituents. The benefit of using the considered powerlaw distribution is to illustrate and present useful results arising from symmetric and asymmetric profiles. The effects of geometrical and material parameters together with the boundary conditions on the frequency parameters of the laminated FG panels are investigated. The obtained results show that the outer FGM Layers have significant effects on the vibration behavior of cylindrical panels. This study serves as a benchmark for assessing the validity of numerical methods or twodimensional theories used to analysis of laminated curved panels.
0

334
347


V
Tahouneh
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University
Iran


M.H
Naei
School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
Iran
mhnaei@ut.ac.ir
Semianalytical solution
FG laminated structures
Finite length curved panels
Vibration analysis
Threeparameter powerlow distribution
[[1] Abrate S., 1998, Impact on Composite Structures, Cambridge UK, Cambridge University Press.##[2] Viola E., Tornabene F., 2009, Free vibrations of threeparameter functionally graded parabolic panels of revolution, Mechanics Research Communications 36: 587594.##[3] Anderson T.A., 2003, 3D elasticity solution for a sandwich composite with functionally graded core subjected to transverse loading by a rigid sphere, Composite Structure 60: 265274.##[4] Kashtalyan M., Menshykova M., 2009, Threedimensional elasticity solution for sandwich panels with a functionally graded core, Composite Structure 87: 3643.##[5] Li Q., Iu V.P., Kou K.P., 2008, Threedimensional vibration analysis of functionally graded material sandwich plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 311(12): 498515.##[6] Zenkour A.M., 2005, A comprehensive analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates. Part 1deflection and stresses, International Journal of Solid Structure 42: 52245242.##[7] Zenkour A.M., 2005, A comprehensive analysis of functionally graded sandwich plates : Part 1 Deflection and stresses, International Journal of Solid Structure 42: 52435258.##[8] Kamarian S., Yas M.H., Pourasghar A., 2013, Free vibration analysis of threeparameter functionally graded material sandwich plates resting on Pasternak foundations, Sandwich Structure and Material 15: 292308.##[9] Loy C.T., Lam K.Y., Reddy J.N., 1999, Vibration of functionally graded cylindrical shells, International Journal of Mechanical science 41: 309324.##[10] Pradhan S.C., Loy C.T., Lam K.Y., Reddy J.N., 2000, Vibration characteristic of functionally graded cylindrical shells under various boundary conditions, Applied Acoustic 61: 119129.##[11] Patel B.P., Gupta S.S., Loknath M.S.B., Kadu C.P., 2005, Free vibration analysis of functionally graded elliptical cylindrical shells using higherorder theory, Composite Structure 69: 259270.##[12] Pradyumna S., Bandyopadhyay J.N., 2008, Free vibration analysis of functionally graded panels using higherorder finiteelement formulation, Journal of Sound and Vibration 318: 176192.##[13] Yang J., Shen S.H., 2003, Free vibration and parametric resonance of shear deformable functionally graded cylindrical panels, Journal of Sound and Vibration 261: 871893.##[14] Gang S.W., Lam K.Y., Reddy J.N., 1999, The elastic response of functionally graded cylindrical shells to lowvelocity, International Journal of Impact Engineering 22: 397417.##[15] Shakeri M., Akhlaghi M., Hosseini S.M., 2006, Vibration and radial wave propagation velocity in functionally graded thick hollow cylinder, Composite Structure 76: 174181.##[16] Chen W.Q., Bian Z.G., Ding H.U., 2004, Threedimensional vibration analysis of fluidfilled orthotropic FGM cylindrical shells, International Journal of Mechanical Science 46: 159171.##[17] Tornabene F., 2009, Free vibration analysis of functionally graded conical cylindrical shell and annular plate structures with a fourparameter powerlaw distribution, Computer Methods Applied Mechanical Engineering 198: 29112935.##[18] Sobhani Aragh B., Yas M.H., 2010, Static and free vibration analyses of continuously graded fiberreinforced cylindrical shells using generalized powerlaw distribution, Acta Mechanica 215: 155173.##[19] Sobhani Aragh B., Yas M.H., 2010, Three dimensional free vibration of functionally graded fiber orientation and volume fraction of cylindrical panels, Material Design 31: 45434552.##[20] Paliwal D.N., Kanagasabapathy H., Gupta K.M., 1995, The large deflection of an orthotropic cylindrical shell on a Pasternak foundation, Composite Structure 31: 3137.##[21] Paliwal D.N., Pandey R.K., Nath T., 1996, Free vibration of circular cylindrical shell on Winkler and Pasternak foundation, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 69: 7989.##[22] Yang R., Kameda H., Takada S., 1998, Shell model FEM analysis of buried pipelines under seismic loading, Bulletin of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute 38: 115146.##[23] Cai J.B., Chen W.Q., Ye G.R, Ding H.J., 2000, On natural frequencies of a transversely isotropic cylindrical panel on a kerr foundation, Journal of Sound and Vibration 232: 9971004.##[24] Gunawan H., TjMikami T., Kanie S., Sato M., 2006, Free vibration characteristics of cylindrical shells partially buried in elastic foundations, Journal of Sound and Vibration 290: 785793.##[25] Farid M., Zahedinejad P., Malekzadeh P., 2010, Three dimensional temperature dependent free vibration analysis of functionally graded material curved panels resting on two parameter elastic foundation using a hybrid semianalytic, differential quadrature method, Material Design 31: 213.##[26] Matsunaga H., 2008, Free vibration and stability of functionally graded shallow shells according to a 2D higherorder deformation theory, Composite Structure 84: 132146.##[27] Civalek Ö., 2005, Geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis of doubly curved isotropic shells resting on elastic foundation by a combination of HDQFD methods, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 82: 470479.##[28] Yas M.H., Tahouneh V., 2012, 3D free vibration analysis of thick functionally graded annular plates on Pasternak elastic foundation via differential quadrature method (DQM), Acta Mechanica 223: 4362.##[29] Tahouneh V., Yas M.H., 2012, 3D free vibration analysis of thick functionally graded annular sector plates on Pasternak elastic foundation via 2D differential quadrature method, Acta Mechanica 223: 18791897.##[30] Tahouneh V., Yas M.H., Tourang H., Kabirian M., 2013, Semianalytical solution for threedimensional vibration of thick continuous grading fiber reinforced (CGFR) annular plates on Pasternak elastic foundations with arbitrary boundary conditions on their circular edges, Meccanica 48: 13131336.##[31] Tahouneh V., Yas M.H., 2013, Influence of equivalent continuum model based on the eshelbymoritanaka scheme on the vibrational response of elastically supported thick continuously graded carbon nanotubereinforced annular plates, Polymer Composites 35(8):16441661.##[32] Tahouneh V., Naei M.H., 2013, A novel 2D sixparameter powerlaw distribution for threedimensional dynamic analysis of thick multidirectional functionally graded rectangular plates resting on a twoparameter elastic foundation, Meccanica 49(1):91109.##[33] Tahouneh V., 2014, Free vibration analysis of thick CGFR annular sector plates resting on elastic foundations, Structural Engineering and Mechanics 50 (6): 773796.##[34] Shu C., 2000, Differential Quadrature and Its Application in Engineering, Springer, Berlin.##[35] Shu C., Richards B.E., 1992, Application of generalized differential quadrature to solve twodimensional incompressible NavierStokes equations , International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids 15: 791798.##]
1

On the Analysis of FGM Beams: FEM with Innovative Element
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523188.html
1
This paper aims at presenting a new efficient element for free vibration and instability analysis of Axially Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) nonprismatic beams using Finite Element Method (FEM). Using concept of Basic Displacement Functions (BDFs), two node element extends to threenode element for obtaining much more exact results using FEM. First, BDFs are introduced and computed using energy method such as unitdummy load method. Afterward, new efficient shape functions are developed in terms of BDFs during the procedure based on the mechanical behavior of the element in which presented shape functions benefit generality and accuracy from stiffness and force method, respectively. Finally, deriving structural matrices of the beam with respect to new shape functions; free vibration and instability analysis of the FGM beam are studied using finite element method for all types of AFGM beams and the convergence of FEM has been studied. The results from both free vibration and instability analysis are in perfect agreement with those of previously published.
0

348
364


M
Zakeri
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
Iran
mohammad_zakeri@ut.ac.ir


A
Modarakar Haghighi
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of TehranCentre of Numerical Methods in Engineering, University of Tehran
Iran


R
Attarnejad
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran
Iran
Axially functionally graded materials (AFGM)
Finite element method (FEM)
Basic displacement functions (BDFs)
Free vibration
Instability analysis
[[1] Chakraborty A., Gopalakrishnan S., Reddy J.N., 2003, A new beam finite element for the analysis of functionally graded materials, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 45(3): 519539.##[2] Carrera E., Brischetto S., Robaldo A., 2008, Variable kinematic model for the analysis of functionally graded material plates, AIAA Journal 46(1): 194203.##[3] Giunta G., Belouettar S., Carrera E., 2010, Analysis of FGM beams by means of classical and advanced theories, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 17(8): 622635.##[4] Şimşek M., 2010, Vibration analysis of a functionally graded beam under a moving mass by using different beam theories, Composite Structures 92(4): 904917.##[5] Elishakoff I., Becquet R., 2000, Closedform solutions for natural frequencies for inhomogeneous beams with one sliding support and the other clamped, Journal of Sound and Vibration 238: 540546.##[6] Calio I., Elishakoff I., 2005, Closedform solutions for axially graded beamcolumns, Journal of Sound and Vibration 280: 10831094.##[7] Bequet R., Elishakoff I., 2001, Class of analytical closedform polynomial solutions for clampedguided inhomogeneous beams, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12: 16571678.##[8] Calio I., Elishakoff I., 2004, Closedform trigonometric solutions for inhomogeneous beamcolumns on elastic foundation, International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics 4(1):139146.##[9] Elishakoff I., Candan S., 2001, Apparently first closedform solution for vibrating inhomogeneous beams, International Journal of Solids and Structures 38(19): 34113441.##[10] Calio I., Elishakoff I., 2004, Can a trigonometric function serve both as the vibration and the buckling mode of an axially graded structure, Mechanics Based Design of Structures and Machines 32(4): 401421.##[11] Elishakoff I., 2001, Inverse buckling problem for inhomogeneous columns, International Journal of Solids and Structures 38(3):457464.##[12] Elishakoff I., Becquet R., 2000, Closedform solutions for natural frequencies for inhomogeneous beams with one sliding support and the other pinned, Journal of Sound and Vibration 238: 529553.##[13] Becquet R., Elishakoff I., 2001, Class of analytical closedform polynomial solutions for guidedpinned inhomogeneous beams, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12(8): 15091534.##[14] Guede Z., Elishakoff I., 2001, Apparently the first closedform solution for inhomogeneous vibrating beams under axial loading, Proceedings of the Royal Society A 457(2007): 623649.##[15] Elishakoff I., Guede Z., 2001, A remarkable nature of the effect of boundary conditions on closedform solutions for vibrating inhomogeneous EulerBernoulli beams, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12: 659704.##[16] Elishakoff I., 2001, Euler’s problem revisited: 222 years later, Meccanica 36: 265272.##[17] Elishakoff I., Guede Z., 2001, Novel closedform solutions in buckling of inhomogeneous columns under distributed variable loading, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12(6): 10751089.##[18] Elishakoff I., Johnson V., 2005, Apparently the first closedform solution of vibrating inhomogeneous beam with a tip mass, Journal of Sound and Vibration 286: 10571066.##[19] Elishakoff I., Pentaras D., 2006, Apparently the first closedform solution of inhomogeneous elastically restrained vibrating beams, Journal of Sound and Vibration 298(12): 439445.##[20] Wu L., Wang Q.S., Elishakoff I., 2005, Semiinverse for axially functionally graded beams with an antisymmetric vibration mode, Journal of Sound and Vibration 284(35): 11901202.##[21] Elishakoff I., Perez A., 2005, Design of a polynomially inhomogeneous bar with a tip mass for specied mode shape and natural frequency, Journal of Sound and Vibration 287(45): 10041012.##[22] Elishakoff I., 2001, Some unexpected results in vibration of nonhomogeneous beams on elastic foundation, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12(12): 21772218.##[23] Guede Z., Elishakoff I., 2001, A fifthorder polynomial that serves as both buckling and vibration mode of an inhomogeneous structure, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 12(7): 12671298.##[24] Elishakoff I., Guede Z., 2004, Analytical polynomial solutions for vibrating axially graded beams, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 11(6): 517533.##[25] Huang Y., Li X.F.A., 2010, New approach for free vibration of axially functionally graded beams with nonuniform crosssection, Journal of Sound and Vibration 329(11): 22912303.##[26] Alshorbagy A.E., Eltaher M.A., Mahmoud F.F., 2011, Free vibration characteristics of a functionally graded beam by finite element method, Applied Mathematical Modelling 35(1): 412425.##[27] Singh K.V., Li G., 2009, Buckling of functionally graded and elastically restrained nonuniform columns, Composites Part B 40(5): 393403.##[28] Shahba A., Rajasekaran S., 2012, Free vibration and stability of tapered Euler–Bernoulli beams made of axially functionally graded materials, Applied Mathematical Modelling 36(7): 30943111.##[29] Shahba A., Attarnejad R., Hajilar S., 2013, A mechanicalbased solution for axially functionally graded tapered eulerbernoulli beams, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 20: 696707.##[30] Zarrinzadeh H., Attarnejad R., Shahba A., 2012, Free vibration of rotating axially functionally graded tapered beams, Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part Gjournal of Aerospace Engineering 226: 363379.##[31] Shahba A., Attarnejad R., Zarrinzadeh H., 2013, Free Vibration Analysis of Centrifugally Stiffened Tapered Functionally Graded Beams, Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures 20(5): 331338.##[32] Shahba A., Attarnejad R., TavanaieMarvi M., Hajilar S., 2011, Free vibration and stability analysis of axially functionally graded tapered Timoshenko beams with classical and nonclassical boundary conditions, Composites Part B 42(4): 801808.##[33] Shahba A., Attarnejad R., Hajilara S., 2011, Free vibration and stability of axially functionally graded tapered EulerBernoulli beams, Shock and Vibration 18(5): 683696.##[34] Attarnejad R., 2010, Basic displacement functions in analysis of nonprismatic beams, Engineering with Computers 27(6): 733745.##]
1

Rayleigh Wave in an Incompressible FibreReinforced Elastic Solid HalfSpace
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523190.html
1
In this paper, the equation of motion for an incompressible transversely isotropic fibrereinforced elastic solid is derived in terms of a scalar function. The general solution of the equation of motion is obtained, which satisfies the required radiation condition. The appropriate traction free boundary conditions are also satisfied by the solution to obtain the required secular equation for the Rayleigh wave speed. Iteration method is used to compute the numerical values of nondimensional speed of Rayleigh wave. The dependence of the nondimensional wave speed on nondimensional material parameter is illustrated graphically. Effect of transverse isotropy is observed on the Rayleigh wave speed.
0

365
371


B
Singh
Department of Mathematics, Post Graduate Government College, Sector11, Chandigarh  160 011, India
India
bsinghgc11@gmail.com
Rayleigh wave
Fibrereinforced
Incompressibility
Transverse isotropy
[[1] Anderson D.L., 1961, Elastic wave propagation in layered anisotropic media , Journal of Geophysical Research 66: 29532963.##[2] Belfield A. J., Rogers T. G., Spencer A.J.M., 1983, Stress in elastic plates reinforced by bres lying in concentric circles , Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 31: 2554.##[3] Bose S.K., Mal A.K., 1974, Elastic waves in a fiber reinforced composite , Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 22: 217229.##[4] Chadwick P., Smith G.D., 1977, Foundations of the theory of surface waves in anisotropic elastic materials, Advances in Applied Mechanics 17: 303376.##[5] Chadwick P., 1993, Wave propagation in incompressible transversely isotropic elastic media I. Homogeneous plane waves , Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 93A: 231253.##[6] Crampin S., Taylor D.B., 1971, The propagation of surface waves in anisotropic media , Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 25: 7187.##[7] Destrade M., 2001, Surface waves in orthotropic incompressible materials , Acoustical Society of America 110:837840.##[8] Destrade M., 2001, The explicit secular equation for surface acoustic waves in monoclinic elastic crystals , Acoustical Society of America 109:13981402.##[9] Destrade M., 2001, Surface waves in orthotropic incompressible materials , Acoustical Society of America 110: 837840.##[10] Dowaikh M.A., Ogden R.W., 1990, On surface waves and deformations in a prestressed incompressible elastic solid , The IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics 44: 261284.##[11] Hashin Z., Rosen W. B., 1964, The elastic moduli of bre reinforced materials , Journal of Applied Mechanics 31:223232.##[12] Malischewsky P.G., 2000, A new formula for the velocity of Rayleigh waves Wave Motion 31: 9396.##[13] Markham M. F.,1970, Measurement of the elastic constants of fibre composites by ultrasonics, Composites 1: 145149.##[14] Mozhaev V.G.,1995, Some new ideas in the theory of surface acoustic waves in anisotropic media , In IUTAM Symposium on Anisotropy, Inhomogeneity and Nonlinearity in Solid Mechanics 39:455462.##[15] Musgrave M.J.P., 1959, The propagation of elastic waves in crystals and other anisotropic media , Reports on Progress in Physics 22:7496.##[16] Nair S., Sotiropoulos D.A., 1999, Interfacial waves in incompressible monoclinic materials with an interlayer , Mechanics of Materials 31:225233.##[17] Nkemzi D., 1997, A new formula for the velocity of Rayleigh waves , Wave Motion 26:199205.##[18] Rayleigh L., 1885, On waves propagated along the plane surface of an elastic solid , Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series A 17:411.##[19] Ogden R.W., Vinh P.C., 2004 , On Rayleigh waves in incompressible orthotropic elastic solids , Acoustical Society of America 115:530533.##[20] Ogden R.W., Singh B., 2011, Propagation of waves in an incompressible transversely isotropic elastic solid with initial stress: Biot revisited , Journal of Mechanics of Materials and Structures 6: 453477.##[21] Ogden R.W., Singh B., 2014, The effect of rotation and initial stress on the propagation of waves in a transversely isotropic elastic solid , Wave Motion 51: 11081126.##[22] Royer D., Dieulesaint E., 1984, Rayleigh wave velocity and displacement in orthorhombic, tetragonal, hexagonal and cubic crystals , Acoustical Society of America 75:14381444.##[23] Scott N.H., Hayes M., 1976, Small vibrations of a fibre reinforced composite , Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 29:467486.##[24] Scott N.H., 1992, Waves in a homogeneously prestrained incompressible, almost inex tensible, fibrereinforced elastic material , Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 92 A: 936.##[25] Scott N.H., 1991, Small vibrations of prestrained constrained elastic materials: the idealised fibrereinforced material , International Journal of Solids and Structures 27:19691980.##[26] Sengupta P. R., Nath S., 2001, Surface waves in bre reinforced anisotropic elastic media , Sadhana 26:363370.##[27] Shams M., Ogden R.W., 2014, On Rayleightype surface waves in an initially stressed incompressible elastic solid , The IMA Journal of Applied Mathematics 79: 360372.##[28] Singh S. J., 2002 , Surface waves in bre reinforced anisotropic elastic media, Sadhana 27:13.##[29] Singh B., Singh S.J., 2004, Reection of plane waves at the free surface of a bre reinforced elastic halfspace , Sadhana 29(3):249257.##[30] Singh B., 2007, Wave propagation in an incompressible transversely isotropic fibre reinforced elastic media , Archive of Applied Mechanics 77:253258.##[31] Singh B., Yadav A.K., 2013, Reflection of plane waves from a free surface of a rotating fibre reinforced elastic solid halfspace with magnetic field , Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 9:7591.##[32] Stoneley R., 1963, The propagation of surface waves in an elastic medium with orthorhombic symmetry , Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 8:176186.##[33] Ting T.C.T., 2002, An explicit secular equation for surface waves in an elastic material of general anisotropy , Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 55:297311.##[34] Vinh P.C., Linh N.T.K., 2013, Rayleigh waves in an incompressible elastic halfspace overlaid with a water layer under the effect of gravity, Meccanica 48:20512060.##]
1

Creep Evolution Analysis of Composite Cylinder Made of Polypropylene Reinforced by Functionally Graded MWCNTs
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523191.html
1
Polypropylene is one of the most common, fastest growing and versatile thermoplastics currently used to produce tanks and chemical piping systems. Even at room temperature creep is considerable for polypropylene products. The creep behavior of strains, stresses, and displacement rates is investigated in a thickwalled cylinder made of polypropylene reinforced by functionally graded (FG) multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using Burgers viscoelastic creep model. The mechanical properties of the composite are obtained based on the volume content of the MWCNTs. Loading is composed of an internal pressure and a uniform temperature field. Using equations of equilibrium, stressstrain and straindisplacement, a constitutive differential equation containing total creep strains is obtained. Creep strain increments are accumulated incrementally during the life of the vessel. Creep strain increments are related to the current stresses and the material uniaxial Burgers creep model by the wellknown PrandtlReuss relations. A semianalytical solution using PrandtlReuss relation has been developed to determine history of stresses, strains and displacements. The results are plotted against dimensionless radius for different volume content of MWCNTs. It has been found that the creep radial and circumferential strains of the cylinder reduce with increasing content of carbon nanotubes. It has also been concluded that the uniform distribution of MWCNTs reinforcement does not considerably influence on stresses.
0

372
383


A
Loghman
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
aloghman@kashanu.ac.ir


H
Shayestemoghadam
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran


E
Loghman
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
Composite FG cylinder
Timedependent creep
Burgers model
Polypropylene
MWCNTs reinforcement CNT
[[1] Boyle J.T, Spence J.,1983, Stress Analysis for Creep, ButterworthHeinemann, Southampton, Butterworth, UK.##[2] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Haghshenas A., Amir S., Mozdianfard M., Latifi M., 2013, Electrothermo mechanical response of thickwalled piezoelectric cylinder reinforced by boron nitride nanotubes, Strength of Materials 45 (1): 102115.##[3] PAI D.H., 1967, Steadystate creep analysis of thickwalled orthotropic cylinders, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 9 : 335348.##[4] Bhatnagar N.S., Arya V.K., 1974, Large strain creep analysis of thickwalled cylinders, International Journal of NonLinear Mechanic 9 : 127140.##[5] Bhatnagar N.S., Kulkarni P.S., Arya V. K., 1984, Creep analysis of an internally pressurized orthotropic rotating cylinder, Nuclear Engineering and Design 83 : 379388.##[6] Bhatnagar N.S., Pradnya K., Arya V. K., 1986, Analysis of an orthotropic thickwalled cylinder under primary creep conditions, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 23 : 165185.##[7] Le Moal P., Perreux D., 1994, Evaluation of creep compliances of unidirectional fibrereinforced composites, Composites Science and Technology 51: 469477.##[8] Singh S.B., Ray S., 2002, Modeling the anisotropy and creep in orthotropic aluminum–silicon carbide composite rotating disc, Mechanics of Materials 34 : 363372.##[9] Yang J.L., Zhang Z., Schlarb A.L., Friedrich K., 2006, On the characterization of tensile creep resistance of polyamide 66 nanocomposites. Part II: Modeling and prediction of longterm performance, Polymer 47 : 6745 6758.##[10] Loghman A. , Shokouhi N., 2009, Creep damage evaluation of thickwalled spheres using a longterm creep constitutive model, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 23 : 25772582.##[11] Aleayoub S.M.A., Loghman A., 2010, Creep stress redistribution analysis of thickwalled FGM sphere, Journal of Solid Mechanics 2 : 115128.##[12] Choi H.J., Bae D.H., 2011, Creep properties of aluminumbased composite containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Scripta Materialia 65 : 194197.##[13] Jia Y., Peng K., Gong X.L., Zhang Z., 2011, Creep and recovery of polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites, International Journal of Plasticity 27 : 12391251.##[14] Loghman A., Ghorbanpour Arani A., Aleayoub S.M.A., 2011, Timedependent creep stress redistribution analysis of thickwalled functionally graded spheres, Mechanics of TimeDependent Materials 15 : 353365.##[15] Loghman A., Ghorbanpour Arani A., Shajari A. R., Amir S., 2011, Timedependent thermo elastic creep analysis of rotating disk made of Al–SiC composite, Archive of Applied Mechanics 81 : 18531864.##[16] Loghman A., Askari Kashan A., Younesi Bidgoli M., Shajari A. R., Ghorbanpour Arani A., 2013, Effect of particle content, size and temperature on magnetothermomechanical creep behavior of composite cylinders, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 27: 10411051.##[17] Loghman A., Atabakhshian V., 2012, Semianalytical solution for timedependent creep analysis of rotating cylinders made of anisotropic exponentially graded material (EGM), Journal of Solid Mechanics 4 (3): 313326.##[18] Nejad M. Z., Kashkoli M. D., 2014, Timedependent thermocreep analysis of rotating FGM thickwalled cylindrical pressure vessels under heat flux, International Journal of Engineering Science 82 : 222237.##[19] Mileiko S.T., 1970, Steady state creep of a composite with short fibers, Journal of Materials Science 5 : 254261.##[20] Monfared V., 2015, A displacement based model to determine the steady state creep strain rate of short fiber composites, Composites Science and Technology 107: 1828.##[21] Monfared V., Mondali M., 2014, Semianalytically presenting the creep strain rate and quasi shearlag model as well as FEM prediction of creep debonding in short fiber, Composites Materials and Design 54 : 368374.##[22] Tang L.C., Wang X., Gong L.X., Peng K., Zhao L., Chen Q., Wu L.B., Jiang J.X., Lai G.Q., 2014, Creep and recovery of polystyrene composites filled with graphene additives, Composites Science and Technology 91: 6370.##[23] Boresi A. P., Schmidt R. J., Sidebottom O. M., 1993, Advanced Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley & Sons .##[24] Ghorbanpour Arani A., Loghman A., Shajari A. R., Amir S., 2010, Semianalytical solution of magnetothermo elastic stresses for functionally graded variable thickness rotating disks, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 24 : 21072117.##[25] Hosseini Kordkheili S.A., Naghdabadi R., 2007, Thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded rotating disk, Composite Structures 79 : 508516 .##[26] Loghman A., Ghorbanpour Arani A., Amir S., Vajedi S., 2010, Magnetothermoelastic creep analysis of functionally graded cylinders, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 87: 389395.##[27] Mendelson A., 1968, Plasticity Theory and Applications, The Macmillan Company, New York .##]
1

Crack Tip Constraint for Anisotropic Sheet Metal Plate Subjected to ModeI Fracture
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523196.html
1
On the ground of manufacturing, sheet metal parts play a key role as they cover about half of the production processes. Sheet metals are commonly obtained from rolling and forming processes which causes misalignment of micro structure resulting obvious anisotropic characteristics and micro cracks. Presence of micro cracks poses serious attention, when stresses at the tip reach to the critical value. Present research deals with a thin anisotropic plate, containing an edge crack subjected to modeI condition. To predict the nature of crack propagation, anisotropic triaxiality is formulated with special reference to Lankford’s coefficient and degree of anisotropy. The distribution of magnitude of anisotropic triaxiality is shown with respect to polar angle at crack tip supplemented by plastic zone shapes. Numerical evaluation has been carried out by considering five different cases of plane stress condition using Hillvon Mises yield criteria. Critical values so obtained apropos respective cases, as traced on the yield locus had been used to predict the location of crack propagation in sheet metal. It is revealed that the angle through which the crack propagate do not remain invariable for all combinations of Lankford’s coefficient and degree of anisotropy but it shifts for two of the five cases taken into consideration.
0

384
402


R
Kacker
Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
India


S.S
Bhadauria
Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India
India
bhadauriass@nitj.ac.in
Triaxiality
Lankford’s coefficient
Mode I Fracture
Degree of anisotropy
Hill von mises criteria
[Lou Y., Yoon J. W., Huh H., 2014, Modeling of shear ductile fracture considering a changeable cutoff value for stress triaxiality, International Journal of Plasticity 54: 5680.##[2] Ognedal A.S., Clausen A. H., Dahlen A., Hopperstad O. S., 2014, Behavior of PVC and HDPE under highly triaxial stress states: An experimental and numerical study, Mechanics of Materials 72: 94108.##[3] Lou Y., 2013, Evaluation of ductile fracture criteria in a general threedimensional stress state considering the stress triaxiality and the, Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica 26(6): 642658.##[4] Paul S. K., 2013, Effect of martensite volume fraction on stress triaxiality and deformation behavior of dual phase steel, Materials & Design 50: 782789.##[5] Jackiewicz J., 2011, Use of a modified Gurson model approach for the simulation of ductile fracture by growth and coalescence of microvoids under low, medium and high stress triaxiality loadings, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 78(3): 487502.##[6] Peirs J., Verleysen P., Degrieck J., 2011, Experimental study of the influence of strain rate on fracture of Ti6Al4V, Procedia Engineering 10: 23362341.##[7] Ha S., Ã K. K., 2010, Void growth and coalescence in f . c . c . single crystals, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 52(7):863873.##[8] Trattnig G., Antretter T., Pippan R., 2008, Fracture of austenitic steel subject to a wide range of stress triaxiality ratios and crack deformation modes, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 75: 223235.##[9] Bru M., Chyra O., Albrecht D., 2008, A ductile damage criterion at various stress triaxialities, International Journal of Plasticity 24:17311755.##[10] Zhang W., Deng X., 2007, Mixedmode I/II fields around a crack with a cohesive zone ahead of the crack tip, Mechanics Research Communications 34: 172180.##[11] Zhu H., Zhu L., Lv X., 2007, Investigation of fracture mechanism of 6063 aluminum alloy under different stress states , International Journal of Fracture 146:159172.##[12] Bao Y., 2005, Dependence of ductile crack formation in tensile tests on stress triaxiality, stress and strain ratios, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72(4):505522.##[13] Bao Y., Wierzbicki T., 2005, On the cutoff value of negative triaxiality for fracture, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 72 :10491069.##[14] Bao Y., Wierzbicki T., 2004, On fracture locus in the equivalent strain and stress triaxiality space, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 46: 8198.##[15] Kim Y., Schwalbe K., 2004, Numerical analyses of strength mismatch effect on local stresses for ideally plastic materials, Engineering Fracture Mechanics 71:11771199.##[16] Hopperstad O. S., Børvik T., Langseth M., Labibes K., Albertini C., 2003, On the influence of stress triaxiality and strain rate on the behaviour of a structural steel, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 22: 113.##[17] Shama A., Zarghamee M., Ojdrovic R., Schafer B., 2003, Seismic damage evaluation of a steel building using stress triaxiality, Engineering Structures 25: 271279.##[18] Ores B., Co M., Str A., 2001, The effect of stress triaxiality on tensile behavior of cavitating specimens, Journal of Materials Science 6: 51555159.##[19] City K., 2000, Fracture and yield behavior of adhesively bonded joints under triaxial stress conditions, Journal of Materials Science 5: 24812491.##[20] Zhu Y., Dodd B., Caddell R. M., Hosford W. F., 1987, Convexity restrictions on nonquadratic anisotropic yield criteria, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 29(10): 733741.##[21] Hance B.M., 2005, Influence of Discontinuous Yielding on Normal Anisotropy (<I>R</I>Value) Measurements, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 14: 616622.##[22] Bhadauria S. S., Hora M. S., Pathak K. K., 2009, Effect of stress triaxiality on yielding of anisotropic, Journal of Solid Mechanics 1(3): 226232.##]
1

Normal and Parallel Permeability of Preform Composite Materials used in Liquid Molding Processes: Analytical Solution
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523197.html
1
The permeability of the preform composite materials used in liquid molding processes such as resin transfer molding and structural reaction injection molding is a complex function of weave pattern and packing characteristics. The development of tools for predicting permeability as a function of these parameters is of great industrial importance. Such capability would speed process design and optimization and provide a step towards establishing processingperformance relations. In this study, both normal and parallel permeability of fibrous media comprised of ordered arrays of elliptical cylinders is studied analytically. A novel scale analysis technique is employed for determining the normal permeability of arrays of elliptical fibers. In this technique, the permeability is related to the geometrical parameters such as porosity, elliptical fiber diameters, and the tortuosity of the medium. Following a unit cell approach, compact relationships are proposed for the first time for the normal permeability of the studied geometries. A comprehensive analysis is also performed to determine the permeability of ordered arrays of elliptical fibers over a wide range of porosity and fiber diameters. The developed compact relationship is successfully verified through comparison with the present results. As a result of assuming an elliptical cross section for the fibers in this analytical analysis, an extra parameter comes to play; therefore, the present analytical solution will be more complicated than those developed for circular fiber type in the literature.
0

403
417


M
Nazari
Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
Iran
mnazari@shahroodut.ac.ir


M.M
Shahmardan
Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
Iran


M
Khaksar
Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
Iran


M
Khatib
Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
Iran


S
Mosayebi
Mechanical Engineering, Shahrood University of Technology
Iran
permeability
Elliptical fibers
Fibrous media
Scale analysis
Analytical
Parametric study
[[1] Tomadakis M. M., Robertson T. J. , 2005, Viscous permeability of random fiber structures: comparison of electrical and diffusional estimates with experimental and analytical results, Journal of Composite Materials 39(2): 163188.##[2] Gostick J. T., Fowler M. W., Pritzker M. D., Ioannidis M. A., Behra L. M. , 2006, Inplane and throughplane gas permeability of carbon fiber electrode backing layers, Journal of Power Sources 162(1): 228238.##[3] Ismail M. S., Hughes K. J., Ingham D. B., Ma L., Pourkashanian M., 2012, Effects of anisotropic permeability and electrical conductivity of gas diffusion layers on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Applied Energy 95: 5063.##[4] Tamayol A., Hooman K., 2011, Thermal assessment of forced convection through metal foam heat exchangers, Journal of Heat Transfer 133(11): 111801111808.##[5] Tamayol A., McGregor F., Bahrami M., 2012, Single phase throughplane permeability of carbon paper gas diffusion layers, Journal of Power Sources 204: 9499.##[6] Kaviany M., 1995, Principles of Heat Transfer in Porous Media, SpringerVerlag, New York.##[7] Yazdchi K., Luding S., 2012, Towards unified drag laws for inertial flow through fibrous materials, Chemical Engineering Journal 207–208: 3548.##[8] Jackson G. W., James D. F., 1986, The permeability of fibrous porous media, The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 64(3): 364374.##[9] Tamayol A., Bahrami M., 2011, Transverse permeability of fibrous porous media, Physical Review E 83(4): 046314.##[10] Mattern K. J., Deen W. M. , 2008, Mixing rules for estimating the hydraulic permeability of fiber mixtures, AIChE Journal 54(1): 3241.##[11] Happel J., 1959, Viscous flow relative to arrays of cylinders, AIChE Journal 5(2): 174177.##[12] Carman P. C. , 1938, The determination of the specific surface of powders, Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions 57: 225234.##[13] Sullivan R. R., 1942, Specific surface measurements on compact bundles of parallel fibers, Journal of Applied Physics 13(11): 725730.##[14] Sparrow E. M., Loeffler A. L., 1959, Longitudinal laminar flow between cylinders arranged in regular array, AIChE Journal 5(3): 325330.##[15] Hasimoto H., 1959, On the periodic fundamental solutions of the Stokes equations and their application to viscous flow past a cubic array of spheres, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 5(02): 317328.##[16] Kuwabara S., 1959, The forces experienced by randomly distributed parallel circular cylinders or spheres in a viscous flow at small Reynolds numbers, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 14: 527532.##[17] Sangani A. S., Acrivos A., 1982, Slow flow past periodic arrays of cylinders with application to heat transfer, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 8(3): 193206.##[18] Drummond J. E., Tahir M. I., 1984, Laminar viscous flow through regular arrays of parallel solid cylinders, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 10(5): 515540.##[19] Hellou M., Martinez J., El Yazidi M., 2004, Stokes flow through microstructural model of fibrous media, Mechanics Research Communications 31(1): 97103.##[20] Tamayol A., Bahrami M., 2009, Analytical determination of viscous permeability of fibrous porous media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 52(9): 24072414.##[21] Gebart B. R., 1992, Permeability of unidirectional reinforcements for RTM, Journal of Composite Materials 26(8): 11001133.##[22] Van der Westhuizen J., Prieur Du Plessis J., 1996, An attempt to quantify fibre bed permeability utilizing the phase average NavierStokes equation, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 27(4): 263269.##[23] Sahraoui M., Kaviany M., 1992, Slip and noslip velocity boundary conditions at interface of porous, plain media, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 35(4): 927943.##[24] Sobera M. P., Kleijn C. R., 2006, Hydraulic permeability of ordered and disordered singlelayer arrays of cylinders, Physical Review E 74(3): 036301036311.##[25] Clague D. S., Phillips R. J., 1997, A numerical calculation of the hydraulic permeability of threedimensional disordered fibrous media, Physics of Fluids 9: 15621572.##[26] Nabovati A., Llewellin E. W., Sousa A., 2009, A general model for the permeability of fibrous porous media based on fluid flow simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 40(6): 860869.##[27] Higdon J. J. L., Ford G. D., 1996, Permeability of threedimensional models of fibrous porous media, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 308: 341361.##[28] Dahua Sh., Lin Y., Youhong T., Jintu F., Feng D. , 2013, Transverse permeability determination of dualscale fibrous materials, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 58(1–2): 532539.##[29] Dahua Sh., Lin Y., Jintu F., 2014, On the longitudinal permeability of aligned fiber arrays, Journal of Composite Materials 0021998314540192.##[30] Xiaohu Y.,Tian Jian L., Tongbeum K., 2014, An analytical model for permeability of isotropic porous media, Physics Letters A 378(30–31): 23082311.##[31] Dahua Sh., Lin Y., Jintu F., 2015, Longitudinal permeability determination of dualscale fibrous materials, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 68: 4246.##[32] White F.M.,2003, Fluid Mechanics, McGrawHill Higher Education.##[33] Archie G. E., 1942, The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir characteristics, Transactions of the AIME 146(99): 5462.##[34] Shen L., Chen Z., 2007, Critical review of the impact of tortuosity on diffusion, Chemical Engineering Science 62(14): 37483755.##[35] Versteeg H. K., Malalasekera W., 1995, An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics, Longman Scientific and Technical, Essex, UK.##[36] Bergelin O. P., Brown G. A., Hull H. L., Sullivan F. W., 1950, Heat transfer and fluid friction during viscous flow across banks of tubes–III. A study of tube spacing and tube size, Transactions of the ASME 72: 881888.##[37] Chmielewski C., Jayaraman K., 1992, The effect of polymer extensibility on crossflow of polymer solutions through cylinder arrays, Journal of Rheology 36: 11051126.##[38] Khomami B., Moreno L. D., 1997, Stability of viscoelastic flow around periodic arrays of cylinders, Rheologica Acta 36(4): 367383.##[39] Kirsch A. A., Fuchs N. A., 1967, Studies on fibrous aerosol filters—II. Pressure drops in systems of parallel cylinders, Annals of Occupational Hygiene 10(1): 2330.##[40] Sadiq T. A. K., Advani S. G., Parnas R. S., 1995, Experimental investigation of transverse flow through aligned cylinders, International Journal of Multiphase Flow 21(5): 755774.##[41] Zhong W. H., Currie I. G., James D. F., 2006, Creeping flow through a model fibrous porous medium, Experiments in Fluids 40(1): 119126.##[42] Skartsis L., Kardos J.L., 1992, The newtonian permeability and consolidation of oriented carbon fiber beds, Proceedings of American Society of Composites Technical Conference 5 :548556.##[43] Sangani A. S., Yao C. , 1988, Transport processes in random arrays of cylinders: IIviscous flow, Physics of Fluids 31: 24352444.##[44] Tamayol A., Bahrami M., 2010, Parallel flow through ordered: An analytical approach, Journal of Fluids Engineering 132: 114502.##]
1

LongitudinalTorsional and Two Plane Transverse Vibrations of a Composite Timoshenko Rotor
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523198.html
1
In this paper, two kinds of vibrations are considered for a composite Timoshenko rotor: longitudinaltorsional vibration and two plane transverse one. The kinetic and potential energies and virtual work due to the gyroscopic effects are calculated and the set of six governing equations and boundary conditions are derived using Hamilton principle. Differential quadrature method (DQM) is used as a strong numerical method and natural frequencies and mode shapes are derived. Effects of the rotating speed and the lamination angle on the natural frequencies are studied for various boundary conditions; meanwhile, critical speeds of the rotor are determined. Two kinds of critical speeds are considered for the rotor: the resonance speed, which happens as rotor rotates near one of the natural frequencies, and the instability speed, which occurs as value of the first natural frequency decreases to zero and rotor becomes instable.
0

418
434


M
Irani Rahagi
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
irani@kashanu.ac.ir


A
Mohebbi
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran


H
Afshari
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan
Iran
Longitudinaltorsional vibration
Transverse vibration
Composite rotor
DQM
[[1] Zu J., Hans R.P., 1992, Natural frequencies and normal modes of a spinning beam with general boundary conditions, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME 59:197204.##[2] Zu J., Melanson J., 1998, Natural frequencies and normal modes of for externally damped spinning Timoshenko beams with general boundary conditions, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME 65:770772.##[3] Dos Reis H. L. M., Goldman R. B., Verstrate P. H., 1987, Thinwalled laminated composite cylindrical tubes—part III: critical speed analysis, Journal of Composites Technology and Research 9(2):5862.##[4] Gupta K., Singh S. E., 1996, Dynamics of composite rotors, Proceedings of the IndoUS Symposium on Emerging Trends in Vibration and Noise Engineering, New Delhi, India.##[5] Bert C.W., 1992, The effects of bending twisting coupling on the critical speed of drive shafts, Composite Materials, 6th Japan/US Conference, Orlando Lancaster.##[6] Kim C.D., Bert C.W., 1993, Critical speed analysis of laminated composite, hollow drive shafts, Composites Engineering 3:633643.##[7] Banerjee J.R., Su H., 2006, Dynamic stiffness formulation and free vibration analysis of a spinning composite beam, Computers and Structures 84: 12081214.##[8] Chang M.Y., Chen J.K., Chang C.Y., 2004, A simple spinning laminated composite shaft model, International Journal of Solids and Structures 41(4): 637662.##[9] Boukhalfa A., Hadjoui A., 2010, Free vibration analysis of an embarked rotating composite shaft using the hpversion of the FEM, Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 7: 105141.##[10] Choi S.H., Pierre C., Ulsoy A.G., 1992, Consistent modeling of rotating Timoshenko shafts subject to axial loads, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 114: 249259.##[11] Bert C.W., Malik M., 1996, Differential quadrature method in computational mechanics: A review, Applied Mechanics Reviews 49: 128.##[12] Du H, Lim M.K., Lin N.R., 1994, Application of generalized differential quadrature method to structural problems, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 37:18811896.##[13] Sun J., Ruzicka M., 2006, A calculation method of hollow circular composite beam under general loadings, Bulletin of Applied Mechanics 3(12): 105114.##[14] Reddy J.N., 2004, Mechanics of Laminated Composite Plates and Shells: Theory and Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.##]
1

Seismic Analysis of Rectangular Concrete Tanks by Considering Fluid and Tank Interaction
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523199.html
1
Many liquid storage tanks around the world have affected by earthquakes. This structure can store dangerous chemical liquids. Hence dynamic behavior of ground supported rectangular storage tanks is very important due to their applications in industrial facilities. In current research, the seismic behavior of two water storage rectangular concrete tanks is examined. For this purpose, these tanks are modeled in FEM software for analyzing. These tanks are analyzed under four type of analysis: static, modal, responsespectrum and timehistory analysis. Time history analysis can take all the nonlinear factors into the analysis, so it is used to estimate the exact amount of structural response. In time history analysis, earthquake accelerograms of Tabas, Kobe and Cape Mendocino have been applied to tanks. Finally, it is resulted that Displacement, base shear and wave height obtained from time history analysis are more than those of response spectrum analysis, indicating insufficiency of response spectrum analysis. In time history analysis, the maximum displacement is achieved in highest part of the tanks. It is due to the wave height which created in earthquake. By increasing in dimension, the wave height is also increased.
0

435
445


M
Yazdanian
Department of Civil Eengineering, Dezful Branch, Islamic Azad University
Iran
yazdanian.mohsen@yahoo.com


S.V
Razavi
Department of Civil Engineering, JundiShapur University of Technology
Iran


M
Mashal
Department of Irigation Engineering, Aburaihan Campus, Tehran University
Iran
Rectangular tank
Earthquake
Time history
Accelerograms
Wave height
[[1] Bayraktar A., Sevim B., Altunışık A., Türker T ., 2010, Effect of the model updating on the earthquake behavior of steel storage tanks, Journal of Constructional Steel Research 66 (3): 462469.##[2] Livaoglu R., 2008, Investigation of seismic behavior of fluid–rectangular tank–soil/ foundation systems in frequency domain, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28: 132146.##[3] Shekari M., Khaji N., Ahmadi M., 2010, On the seismic behavior of cylindrical baseisolated liquid storage tanks excited by longperiod ground motions, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30(10): 968980.##[4] Sezen H., Livaoglu R., Dogangun A., 2008, Dynamic analysis and seismic performance evaluation of aboveground liquid containing tanks, Journal of Structural Engineering 30: 794803.##[5] Sezen H., Whittaker A.S., Elwood K.J., Mosalam K.M., 2003, Performance of reinforced concrete and wall buildings during the August 17, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake, and seismic design and construction practice in Turkey, Journal of Structural Engineering 25 (1):103114.##[6] Sezen H., Whittaker A.S., 2004, Performance evaluation of industrial facilities during the 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada.##[7] Korkmaz K.A., Sari A., Carhoglu A.I., 2011, Seismic risk assessment of storage tanks in Turkish industrial facilities, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 24(4): 314320.##[8] Housner G.W., 1957, Dynamic pressures on accelerated fluid containers, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 47(1): 1537.##[9] Housner G.W., 1963, The dynamic behavior of water tanks, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 53(2): 381387.##[10] Edwards N., 1969, A procedure for the dynamic analysis of thin walled cylindrical liquid storage tanks, Ph.D Thesis, Ann Arbor (MI), University of Michigan.##[11] Epstein H.I., 1976, Seismic design of liquid storage tanks, Journal of the Structural Division ASCE 102: 16591673.##[12] Haroun M.A., 1984, Stress analysis of rectangular walls under seismically induced hydrodynamic loads, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 74(3):10311041.##[13] Haroun M.A., Tayel M.A., 1985, Response of tanks to vertical seismic excitations, Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamic 13: 583595.##[14] Rosenblueth E., Newmark N.M., 1971, Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.##[15] Veletsos A.S., Yang J.Y., 1977, Earthquake response of liquid storage tanks, in advances in civil engineering through engineering mechanics, Proceedings of the Second Engineering Mechanics Specialty Conference, ASCE/EMD Specialty Conference, Raleigh, NC.##[16] Park J.H., Koh H.M., Kim J., 1990, Liquidstructure interaction analysis by coupled boundary elementfinite element method in time domain, Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Boundary Element Technology, BETECH/92, Southampton ,England.##[17] Chen J.Z., Kianoush M.R., 2005, Seismic response of concrete rectangular tanks for liquid containing structures, Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering 32: 739752.##[18] Virella J.C., Godoy L.A., Suarez L.E., 2006, Fundamental modes of tankliquid systems under horizontal motions, Engineering Structures 28(10):14501461.##[19] Ozdemir Z., Souli M., Fahjan Y.M., 2010, Application of nonlinear fluid–structure interaction methods to seismic analysis of anchored and unanchored tanks, Journal of Engineering Structures 32: 409423.##[20] Kianoush M.R., Chen J.Z., 2006, Effect of vertical acceleration on response of concrete rectangular liquid storage tanks, Engineering Structures 28(5):704715.##[21] Livaoglu R., 2008, Investigation of seismic behavior of fluid–rectangular tank–soil/ foundation systems in frequency domain, Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 28: 132146.##[22] Kianoush M.R., Ghaemmaghami A.R., 2011, The effect of earthquake frequency content on the seismic behavior of concrete rectangular liquid tanks using the finite element method incorporating soil–structure interaction, Engineering Structures 33: 21862200.##[23] Moslemi M., Kianoush M.R., 2012, Parametric study on dynamic behavior of cylindrical groundsupported tanks, Engineering Structures 42: 214230.##[24] Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.L., Zhu J.Z., 2005, The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, Sixth edition, Published by Elsevier.##[25] Chopra A.K., 2000, Dynamics of Structures, Theory and Applications to Earthquake Engineering, PrenticeHall.##[26] Seismic Design of LiquidContaining Concrete Structures (ACI 350.306) and Commentary (ACI 350.3R06), 2009, Farmington Hills (MI, USA), American Concrete Institute.##[27] ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS Release 12.0 Documentation, USA.##[28] Iranian Code of Practice for Seismic Resistant Design of Buildings, Standard No. 2800 84, Building and Housing Research Center.##]
1

Variational Principle, Uniqueness and Reciprocity Theorems in Porous Piezothermoelastic with Mass Diffusion
http://jsm.iauarak.ac.ir/article_523200.html
1
The basic governing equations in anisotropic elastic material under the effect of porous piezothermoelastic are presented. Biot [1], Lord & Shulman [4] and Sherief et al. [5] theories are used to develop the basic equations for porous piezothermoelastic with mass diffusion material. The variational principle, uniqueness theorem and theorem of reciprocity in this model are established under the assumption of positive definiteness of elastic, porousthermal, chemical potential and electric field.
0

446
465


R
Kumar
Department of Mathematics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India
India
rajneesh_kuk@rediffmail.com


P
Sharma
Department of Mathematics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136119, Haryana, India
India
Piezothermoelastic
Porous
Variational principle
Uniqueness
Reciprocity
[[1] Biot M.A., 1956, Theory of deformation of a porous viscoelastic anisotropic solid, Journal of Applied Physics 27(5): 459467.##[2] Biot M.A., 1956, The theory of propagation of elastic waves in a fluid saturated porous solid, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 28: 168191.##[3] Biot M.A., 1956, Thermoelasticity and irreversible thermodynamics, Journal of Applied Physics 27: 240253.##[4] Lord H.W., Shulman Y., 1967, The generalised dynamic theory of thermoelasticity, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 15: 299309.##[5] Sherief H. H., Hamza F.A., Saleh H.A., 2004, The theory of generalised thermoelastic diffusion, International Journal of Engineering Science 42(5): 591608.##[6] Mindlin R.D., 1974, Equation of high frequency of thermopiezoelecteric crystals plates, International Journal of Solids and Structures 10(6): 625637.##[7] Nowacki W., 1978, Some general theorems of thermopiezoelectricity, Journal of Thermal Stresses 1:171182.##[8] Nowacki W., 1979, Foundation of Linear Piezoelectricity, Interactions in Elastic Solids, Springer, Wein, Chapter 1.##[9] Chandrasekharaiah D.S., 1984, A generalised linear thermoelasticity theory of piezoelectric media, Acta Mechanica 71:293349.##[10] Rao S.S., Sunar M., 1993, Analysis of thermopiezoelectric sensors and acutators in advanced intelligent structures, AIAA Journal 31: 12801286.##[11] Majhi M.C., 1995, Discontinuities in generalized thermo elastic wave propagation in a semi infinite piezoelectric rod, Journal of Technical Physics 36: 269278.##[12] Chen W.Q., 2000, Three dimensional green’s function for two phase transversely isotropic piezothermoelastic media, Journal of Applied Mechanics 67:705.##[13] Biot M.A., 1962, Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media, Journal of Applied Physics 33:14821498.##[14] Biot M.A., 1962, Generalised theory of acoustic propagation in porous dissipative media, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 34:12541264.##[15] Sharma J.N., Kumar M., 2000, Plane harmonic waves in piezothermoealstic materials, Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences 7: 434442.##[16] Sharma J.N., Pal M., Chand D., 2005, Propagation characteristics of Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic piezothermoelastic materials, Journal of Sound and Vibration 284: 227248.##[17] Sharma J.N., Walia V., 2007, Further investigationon rayleigh waves in piezothermoelastic materials, Journal of Sound and Vibration 301:189206.##[18] Sharma M.D., 2010, Propagation of in homogeneous waves in anisotropic piezothermoelastic media, Acta Mechanica 215: 307318.##[19] Alshaikh F. A., 2012, The mathematical modelling for studying the influence of the initial stresses and relaxation times on reflection and refraction waves in piezothermoelastic halfspace, Applied Mathematics 3: 819832.##[20] Sharma M. D., Gogna M. L., 1991, Wave propagation in anisotropic liquidsaturated porous solids, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 89:10681073.##[21] Sharma M. D., 2004, 3D Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium: phase velocity, group velocity and polarization, Geophysical Journal International 156:329344.##[22] Sharma M. D., 2004, 3D Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium: reflection and refraction at an interface with fluid, Geophysical Journal International 157(2): 947958.##[23] Sharma M. D., 2005, Polarisations of quasiwaves in a general anisotropic porous solid saturated with viscous fluid, Journal of Earth System Science 114(4): 411419.##[24] Sharma M. D., 2008, Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium, Journal of Earth System Science 117(6): 951958.##[25] Sharma M. D., 2009, Boundary conditions for porous solids saturated with viscous fluid, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 30(7): 821832.##[26] Hashimoto K. V., Yamaguchi M., 1986, Piezoelectric and dielectric properties of composite materials, Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium 2: 697702.##[27] Arai T., Ayusawa K., Sato H., Miyata T., Kawamura K., Kobayashi K., 1991, Properties of hydrophones with porous piezoelectric ceramics, Journal of Applied Physics 30: 22532255.##[28] Hayashi T. , Sugihara S., Okazaki K., 1991, Processing of porous 33 PZT ceramics using capsulefree O2 –HIP, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 30: 22432246.##[29] Xia Z., Ma Sh., Qiu X., Wu Y., Wang F., 2003, Influence of porosity on the stability of charge and piezoelectricity for porous polytetrafluoroethylene film electrets, Journal of Electrostatics 59: 5769.##[30] Banno H., 1993, Effects of porosity on dielectric, elastic and electromechanical properties of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics with open pores: a theoretical approach, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 32: 42144217.##[31] Gomez T. E., Montero F., 1996, Highly coupled dielectric behaviour of porous ceramics embedding a polymer, Applied Physics Letters 68: 263265.##[32] Vashishth A. K., Gupta V., 2009, Vibrations of porous piezoelectric ceramic plates, Journal of Sound and Vibration 325: 781797.##[33] Nowacki W., 1974, Dynamical problem of thermodiffusion in solid1, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences 22: 5564.##[34] Nowacki W., 1974, Dynamical problem of thermodiffusion in solid11, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences 22: 129135.##[35] Nowacki W., 1974, Dynamical problem of thermodiffusion in solid111, Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences 22: 275267.##[36] Nowacki W., 1974, Dynamical problem of thermodiffusion in solids, Proceedings vibration problems 15: 105128.##[37] Kuang Z.B., 2010, Variational principles for generalised thermodiffusion theory in pyroelectricity, Acta Mechenica 214: 275289.##[38] Kumar R., Kansal T., 2008, Propagation of lamb waves in transversely isotropic thermoelastic diffusion plate, International Journal of Solids and Structures 45: 58905913.##[39] Ezzat M.A., El Karamany A.S., 2002, The uniqueness and reciprocity theorems for generalised thermoviscoelasticity for anisotropic media, Journal of Thermal Stresses 25(6): 507522.##[40] Li J. Y., 2003, Uniqueness and reciprocity theorems for linear thermoelectromagnetoelasticity, Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics 56(1): 3543.##[41] Othman M.I.A., 2004, The uniqueness and reciprocity theorems for generalised thermoviscoelasticity with thermal relaxation times, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering 7(2): 7787.##[42] Aouadi M., 2007, Uniqueness and reciprocity theorems in the theory of generalized thermoelastic diffusion, Journal of Thermal Stresses 30(7): 665678.##[43] Vashishth A. K., Gupta V., 2011, Uniqueness theorem, reciprocity and eigen value problems in linear theory of porous piezoelectricity, Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 32(4): 479494.##[44] Kumar R., Kansal T., 2013, Variational principle, uniqueness and reciprocity theorems in the theory of generalized thermoelastic diffusion material, Qscience Connect, DOI: 10.5339/connect.2013.27.##[45] Kumar R., Gupta V., 2013, Uniqueness and reciprocity theorem and plane waves in thermoelastic diffusion with a fractional order derivative, Chinese Physics B 22(7):74601.##]