Design and Analysis of Graded Honeycomb Shock Absorber for Increasing the Safety of Passengers in Armored Vehicles Exposed to Mine Explosion

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Modern Manufacturing Technologies Research Center, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, I H University, Tehran, Iran


Protecting armored vehicles from mine explosion can lead to the survival of thousands of people exposed to this risk. Very purpose, shock absorbers such as honeycomb structures can be applied for crashworthiness improvement. In this study, graded honeycomb structure is primarily introduced as a shock absorber, followed by the introduction of its absorbed energy and the force and acceleration applied to the occupant which is numerically simulated and measured in Abaqus software. In order to validate the numerical simulation results, a low-velocity experimental test has been conducted on a prototype, and the obtained results indicate well agreement with empirical results. In the meanwhile of mine explosion under a armored vehicle, it has been considered that the vehicle will be thrown upwards with a velocity of 10 m/s and will hit to the ground thereafter. For this case, a shock absorber has been designed, optimized and analyzed. According to the obtained results, the designed shock absorber meets all of the standard requirements. The applied simulation and design method can be further extended for miscellaneous shock absorbers.


[1] Test Methodology for Protection of Vehicle Occupants against Anti-Vehicular Landmine Effects, Technical Report, NATO, 2007.
[2] Final Report of HFM-090 Task Group 25 on Test Methodology for Protection of Vehicle Occupants against Anti-Vehicular Landmine Effects, NATO, 2007.
[3] Chen Q., Pugno N.M., 2013, In-plane elastic properties of hierarchical nano-honeycombs: The role of the surface effect, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 37: 248-255.
[4] Nakamoto H., Adachi T., Araki W., 2009, In-plane impact behavior of honeycomb structures randomly filled with rigid inclusions, International Journal of Impact Engineering 36: 73-80.
[5] Tanaka K., Nishida M., Ueki G., 2009, Shock absorption of aluminum honeycombs for in-plane impacts, 28th International Congress on High-Speed Imaging and Photonics.
[6] Atli-Veltin B., 2009, Effect of Geometric Parameters on the In-Plane Crushing Behavior of Honeycombs and Honeycombs with Facesheets, PhD thesis, The Pennsylvania State University.
[7] Stromsoe J.D., 2011, Modeling of In-Plane Crushed Honeycomb Cores with Applications to Ramp Down Sandwich Structure Closures, Ms thesis, San Diego State University.
[8] Asadi M., Walker B., Shirvani H., 2009, An investigation to compare the application of shell and solid element honeycomb model in ODB, 7th European LS-Dyna Conference.
[9] Menna C., Zinno A., Asprone D., Prota A., 2013, Numerical assessment of the impact behavior of honeycomb sandwich structures, Composite Structures 106: 326-339.
[10] Radzai Said M., Tan C.F., 2008, Aluminum honeycomb under quasi-static compressive loading: an experimental investigation, Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology 16: 1-8.
[11] Chao L.B., Ping Z.G., Jian L.T., 2012, Low strain rate compressive behavior of high porosity closed-cell aluminum foams, Science China Technological Sciences 55: 451-463.
[12] Shariyat M., Moradi M., Samaee S., 2012, Nonlinear finite element eccentric low-velocity impact analysis of rectangular laminated composite plates subjected to in-phase/anti-phase biaxial preloads, Journal of Solid Mechanics 4(2): 177-194.
[13] Rezaei Pour Almasi A., Fariba F., Rasoli S., 2015, Modifying stress-strain curves using optimization and finite elements simulation methods, Journal of Solid Mechanics 7(1): 71-82.
[14] Galehdari S. A., Kadkhodayan M., Hadidi-Moud S., 2015, Analytical, experimental and numerical study of a graded honeycomb structure under in-plane impact load with low velocity, International Journal of Crashworthiness 20(4): 387-400.
[15] Muhammad A., 2007, Study of a Compact Energy Absorber, PhD Thesis, Iowa State University.
[16] Galehdari S. A., Kadkhodayan M., Hadidi-Moud S., 2015, Analytical numerical and experimental study of energy absorption of graded honeycomb structure under in-plane low velocity impact, Modares Mechanical Engineering 14(15): 261-271.
[17] Galehdari S. A., Kadkhodayan M., 2015, Study of graded honeycomb structure under in-plane and out of plane impact loading, 17th International Mechanical Engineering Conference (ISME 2015), Amirkabir University of technology, Tehran, Iran.
[18] Galehdari S. A., Kadkhodayan M., Hadidi-Moud S., 2015, Low velocity impact and quasi-static in-plane loading on a graded honeycomb structure; experimental, analytical and numerical study, Aerospace Science and Technology 47: 425-433.
[19] Tabiei A., Nilakantan G., 2014, Reduction of acceleration induced injuries from mine blasts under infantry vehicles, 6th European Ls-Dyna Users’ Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden.
[20] Sławiński G., Dziewulski P., Niezgoda T., 2015, Investigation of human body exposed to blast wave derived from improvised explosive devices, Journal of Kones Powertrain and Transport 22(4): 287-294.
[21] Khodarahmi H., 2014, Investigation, Analysis Tactical Armored Vehicle, Advanced Ground Defense Technology Research Center, Imam Hossein University .
[22] Huang H.H., 2009, Controller Design for Stability and Rollover Prevention of Multi-Body Ground Vehicles with Uncertain Dynamics and Faults, PhD Thesis, The Ohio State University.
[23] Michelin Cargoxbib and Xp 27, 2014, Technical Documentation, Michelin Manufacturing Company.
[24] Wong J.Y., 2001, Theory of Ground Vehicles, John Wiley and Sons.
[25] Halderman J.D., 2012, Automotive Technology, Pearson.
[26] 49 CFR 571.208 – Standard No. 208, 2012, Occupant Crash Protection, Cornell University Law School.
[27] Owen P.L., 2004, Procedures for Using the Amanda Model in Acceleration Response Studies (Tutorial by Example), Army Research Laboratory.
[28] Panowicz R., Sybilski K., Koodziejczyk D., 2011, Numerical analysis of effects of IDE side explosion on crew of light armored wheeled vehicle, Journal of Kones Powertrain and Transport 18(4): 331-339.